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BSX P&A Definitions

QuestionAnswer
Tropism Directional plant growth response towards or away from a directional stimulus
Nastic Movement Rapid and immediate plant movements caused by turgor pressure changes in response to a stimulus
Zeitgeber Environmental cue that resets the biological clock in order to sync with the environment
Entrainment The reset of the biological clock by a zeitgeber
Short Day Plants (Long night plants) Plants that will not flower until a certain period of uninterrupted darkness Photoperiod shorter than a certain critical day length
Long Day Plants (Short night plants) Plants that will not flower unless they are exposed to short periods of uninterrupted darkness Photoperiod must be longer than a certain critical day length
Day Neutral Plants Insensitive to photoperiod
Annual Plant Takes one year to complete biological lifecycle
Biennial Plant Takes two years to complete biological lifecycle
Perennial Plant Lives for more than two years
Biological Rhythm cyclic changes in level of bodily function/chemical, often linked to environmental changes
Aestivation State of animal dormancy characterised by inactivity and low metabolic rate in response to inc. temp. and arid conditions
Photoperiodism Ability of plants to detect chances in day length (photoperiod) and therefore regulate seasonal activities
Photoperiod Changes in day length detected by leaves
Phytochrome Pigment found in leaves, found in two forms: Pr and Pfr, which builds up in leaves to determine photoperiod
Taxis Movement of whole organism towards/away from a directional stimulus (so like animal tropisms)
Kinesis Change in rate of movement of whole animal in response to change in intensity of non-directional stimulus
Homing Ability of organism to find it's way home over unfamiliar territory
Symbiosis Close association/contact between species
Mutualism Both species benefit from the relationship (+ +)
Commenalism One species benefits, the other is unaffected (+ /)
Exploitation One species benefits at the expense of another (+ -)
Parasitism Parasite lives on and benefits from host, harming but not killing them
Gause's Principle of Competitive Exclusion Two species cannot co-exist is they have the same ecological niche. One must alter it's niche slightly or move or die out. Differences in niches are selected for to reduce competition. Can lead to adaptive radiation.
Greater competition means... Greater harm lol
Competition is caused by... The supply of resources being unable to keep up with the demand
Amensalism One species is destroyed / inhibited and the other is unaffected eg. larger/stronger species excludes smaller/weaker species
Allelopathy Plant amensalism
Autotoxicity Parent plants release chemicals that inhibit the growth of seedlings
Antibiosis Amensalism by chemical secretion
Created by: alexandrialim