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Biology

Biology quiz

TermDefinition
cell the smallest living unit of any organism
nucleus a large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cell's activities
eukaryotes cells that enclose their DNA in nuclei
prokaryotes cells that do not enclose DNA in nuclei
cytoplasm the gel portion of the cell outside the nucleus
organelles cellular structures that act as if they are specialized organs. Literally translated as "little organs"
vacuoles store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
lysosomes break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell
cytoskeleton helps the cell maintain its shape and is also involved in movement
microfilaments threadlike structures made up of a protein called actin. They form extensive networks in some cells and produce a tough, flexible framework that supports the cell
microtubules hollow structures made up of proteins known as tubulins. They play critical roles in maintaining cell shape.
centrioles located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division. They are not found in plant cells.
ribosomes small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in all cells. They produce proteins by following coded instructions that come from DNA.
golgi apparatus modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for the storage in the cell or release outside the cell.
endoplasmic reticulum where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell
chloroplasts capture the energy from the sunlight and convert it into compounds that are more convenient for the cells to use
cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also protects and supports the cell
mitochondria convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cells to use
cell walls lie outside the cell membrane and most are porous enough to allow water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and certain other substances to pass through easily. Their main function is to provide support and protection for the cell.
lipid bilayer a double-layered sheet which gives cell membranes a flexible structure and forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surrondings
Created by: VickieJ10