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marine biology

module 2

respiration the use of energy from chemical reactions to maintain a organism
regulate controlling the exchange of materials with the organisms environment
reproduce organisms do this to pass their characteristics to their offspring
respond a organism interacting with stimuli from their surroundings
metabolism the process by which a living organism takes energy from its surroundings and uses its surroundings and uses t to sustain itself, develop, and grow
carbrohydrates made from the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, include simple sugars, glucose, and starches (chains of simple sugars along with the components), the first group used for metabolism
chitin a special type of carbohydrate used as a skeletal material
proteins are another group of molecules involved in metabolism, are composed of very complex chains of building blocks called amino acids, which contain not only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but also nitrogen
amino acids very complex chains of building blocks
lipids a third group of molecules involved in metabolism, their main function is energy storage, ad forming fats and oils
nucleic acids these chemicals store the basic information genetically transmitted to future generations, are made up of nucleotides, which are made from a simple sugar, phosphorus, and nitrogen
nucleotides the building blocks of nucleic asids
DNA the nucleic acid which you are probably most familiar is deoxyribonucleic acid, or this which provides the information necessary for organisms to pass on genetic data to their offspring
organic compounds carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
producers plant, algae, and a few other organisms take energy and use it as simple sugars, which they use as food for themselves
photosynthesis the process by which an organism uses the energy from the sun to produce its own food
chlorophyll a special pigment that give plants their bright green color
autotrophs organisms that are able to produce their own food
heterotrophs organisms that cannot make their own food and must obtain it from other organisms
Resopiration the process by which food is converted into usable energy for life functions
ATP the energy produced from respiration is stored by organisms called adenosine triphosphate, or this abbreviation
primary production the net increase in organic matter made by autotrophs
primary producers autotrophs which photosynthesize more than they can respire
cell the basic unit of life
plasma membrane the outer wall of the cell that separates the internal fluid from the exterior environment of the cell and controls the exchange of material between the two
organelles a number of specialized structures within the cytoplasm and are separated by internal membranes on which many chemical processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration, occur
prokaryotic the simplest and smallest cells that have no membrane-bounded organelles
prokaryotes the organisms made up of prokaryotic cells
cell wall outside the plasma membrane to provide form and mechanical support
eukaryotes the group made up of organisms with cells that are much more complex and organized than the cells of prokaryotes
eukaryotic these cells have a many membrane-bounded organelles that preform a host of functions within the cell
chromosomes carry's the cells DNA
nucleus the chromosomes and their surrounding nuclear membrane are in this central structure
mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, braking down molecules to provide the energy the cell needs
Endoplamic reticulum and Golgi complex two cell structures that are mainly made of folded membranes and are responsible for thee construction and transport of organic molecules that the cells need
vaculoes within the cell wall, this is where food particles are ingested and stored
chloroplasts serves as sites for photoshesis
cell wall provided form and support
cilia a short, microscopic hairlike, vibrating structure that helps the cells move
level of organization atom, molecule, cellular organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organism, population, community, ecosystems
atom the smallest unit of an element
molecule a chemical unit that results from atoms bounding together
cellular organelle a well-defined structure within a cell
cell the basic organizational unit of living material
tissue a group of similar cells with a specific function
organ a body part made of tissues preforming as a unit organism
organism an individual capable of reproduction
population a group of interbreeding organisms coexisting together
community integrated populations living in a limited area
ecosystems a community and the physical features of its environment
homeostasis the tendency of living organisms to control or regulate changes in their internal environment
diffusion the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
osmosis the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
selectively permeable allows certain molecule or ions to pass through the cell membrane by means of active or passive transport
osmoconformers marine organisms that allows its internal concentration of salts to change in order to match the external concentration of salts in the surrounding water
central vacuole usually the largest cellular organelle found in plant cells, it is surrounded by a membrane and functions to hold materials and wastes
osmoregulator a marine organism that regulates its internal concentration of salts
chloride cells located in the gills of teleosts which pump sodium and chloride ions out into the sea against a concentration gradient
poikilotherm an organism whose body temperature changes with its surrounding environment
ectotherm an organism whose body temperature is controlled by its surrounding environment
homeotherm an animal that maintains a controlled internal body temperature using its own heating and cooling mechanisms
endotherm an animal whose internal body temperature is a result of internal sources of heat
heredity the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next
daughter cells two cells formed when a cell undergoes cell division by mitosis, and are genetically identical to the parent cell because they contain the same number and types of chromosomes
cell fission the simple process of a single cell duplicating itself
mitosis ensures that each of the daughter cells has a copy of every chromosome
asexual reproduction reproduction accomplished by a single organism
sexual reproduction reproduction that involves the union of gametes from organisms: a male, and a female
gamates the union of two separate cells
germ tissue a special kind of tissue that produces the gamates
meiosis germ cell are divided through this process
diploid a pair of chromosomes
hoploid are referred to a gamates
ovaries female gonads that produce eggs
testes male gonads that produce sperm
zygote a fertilized egg
placenta a special structure that allow some of the food that the mother eats to be transferred to the developing zygote
broadcast spawning when a species releases millions of gamates into the water
reproductive strategy are structural, functional, and behavioral adaptions that improve the chances of fertilization
classifing the placing of live forms into groups
species a population of organisms that not only have similar characteristics but also can successfully bread with each other
reproductive isolated when 2 populations can not interbred successfully
genus a group of very similar species
binomial nomenclature identify an organism by its genus and species name
taxonomy the science of classifying organisms
kingdom the most general grouping of a species
Created by: #1DoctorWhoFan