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physics test 7/28

x-ray production & interaction test

describe the 2 types of x-rays produced in the tube brems & characteristic
list at least 5 properties of x-rays travel in straight lines, cant focus with lens, travel at speed of light in a vacuum, polyenergetic, can ionize matter, EM, produce small amount of heat in matter, affect IR, produce secondary & s/s radiation
what is the definition of: Angstrom wavelength
what is the wavelength range for diagnostic x-rays? .1-.5 Angstroms
what is the definition of: LET a measure of the energy transferred to material as an ionizing particle travels through it. This measure is used to quantify the effects of ionizing radiation on biological specimens
what are examples of high & low LET? high = alpha & beta ...... low = x-ray & gamma
particulate vs photon radiation particulate = alpha, beta ...... photon = x-ray, gamma
what is the definition of: NBR types natural background radiation = cosmic, radon, air-line travel, UV
what is the definition of: RBE ability of ionizing radiation to produce biologic effect relative to same amount of 200 keV x-ray required to produce similar effect. EX. epilation & errythema
what is the definition of: R (c/kg) exposure in air of x or gamma up to 3 meV (usded with skin entrance exposure)
what is the definition of: Rem (sV) dose equivalent (used with our radiation monitors -employee) (applies to a single organ)
what is the definition of: Rad (Gy) absorbed dose of any type of radiation in any type of matter (used with pt dose)
what is the definition of: HVL amount of absorbed required to reduce initial intensity by 1/2
what is the definition of: attenuation weakened compaired to promary beam
list 4 factors that affect attenuation 1.) atomic # (air, fat) 2.) mass # (# of photons & neutrons) 3.) kVp 4.) # of e- per gram
what is the definition of: physical half life time it takes a radioactive substance to reduce by 1/2 its original energy
what is the definition of: biological half life in the body, its the amount of time, with the bodies metabolism, that it takes to break down to 1/2 initial intensity
what is the definition of: filtration added absorber that hardens beam by absorbing low energy, long wavelength that would only contribute to skin dose
high kVp is _________ energy? high
high kVp is _________ beam quality? high
high kVp is _________ frequency? short
high kVp is _________ s/s? high
high kVp is _________ penetration? high
high kVp is _________ attenuation? low
high kVp is _________ contrast scale? long
what is the interaction that is most common in diagnostic? Photoelectric Effect
what interaction gives you contrast? Photoelectric Effect
what interaction reduces contrast? Compton
how does compton s/s affect image contrast it reduces contrast because the more the s/s the lower (gray) the contrast
what happens to the incident x-ray photon in: Photoelectric Effect the incident x-ray photon is completely absorbed giving up all its energy to the atom
what happens to the incident x-ray photon in: Compton the incident x-ray interacts with an outer shell e- and ejects it from the atom, ionizing the atom. The ejected atom is called a compton electron. The x-ray continues in a different direction with less energy
name the predominant interaction in the diagnostic x-ray range Photoelectric Effect
Differentiate between secondary and s/s radiation secondary = created from interaction & comes from pt ..... s/s radiation = x-ray photon changes direction & loses strength
in order for Pair production to occur, the incident photon must have energy of at least ______ >1.02 meV
in order for photodisintregration to occur, the incident photon must have energy of at least ______ >10 meV
describe PE interaction when an incident x-ray is totally absorbed during the ionization of an inner-shell e-. The incident photon disappears & the k-shell e-, now called a photoelectron, is ejected from the atom w/ the same energy as the incident x-ray called CHARACTERISTIC RAD
why does the probability of PE interaction decrease with increasing kVp? increasing kVp increases penetration & decreases absorbtion, so if theres less absorbtion, there will be NO PE
the wavelength of EM radiation ________ as the energy decreases increases (longer)
the _________ of an x-ray beam refers to its penetrating ability quality or HVL
Differentiate between the 2 types of classical s/s 1.) Thomson s/s = scattering of an x-ray with an e- ...... 2.) Rayleigh s/s = scattering of an x-ray with the target atom
what is coherent s/s aka classical = scattering in a change in direction of an inicident x-ray WITHOUT A LOSS OF ENERGY
in the diagnostic range the highest quantity of s/s is backcatter of _____ 180 degrees
Created by: sr4095