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Endocrine Organs

Major Endocrine Organs

GlandLocation(s)Hormone(s) ProducedNormal Physiologic EffectsEffects of Hypersecretion Effects of Hyposcretion
Gonads (female) Pelvic cavity Estrogens and progesterone Secondary sex characteristics at puberty, menstrual cycle - -
Gonads (male) Suspended in a pouchlike sac, the scrotum, outside the pelvic cavity Testosterone Secondary sex characteristics at puberty, libido - -
Thymus Superior thorax, posterior to the sternum and anterior to the heart and lungs Thymosin and thymopoietin Help direct the maturation and specialization of T lymphocytes, or T cells - -
Pancreas Partially behind the stomach in the abdomen Digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon Glucagon acts antagonistically to insulin to keep the blood glucose levels balanced Glucose Level balance Insulin: hypoglycemia Insulin: diabetes mellitus
Anterior Pituitary Concavity of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone Four tropic hormones: -Gonadotropins - follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) -Adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH) - Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or thyrotropin AND -Growth hormone (GH) -Prolactin (PRL) FSH/LH: Regulate gamete production and hormonal activity of gonads ACTH: Regulate endocrine activity of cortex portion of adrenal gland TSH: Influence growth and activity of thyroid gland GH: Growth of muscle and long bones PRL: Lactation GH: Causes gigantism in children and acromegaly (overgrowth of bones in hands, feet, and face) in adults GH: Pituitary dwarfism in children
Posterior Pituitary Concavity of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Oxytocin: Stimulates powerful uterine contractions during birth and coitus and also causes milk ejection in the lactating mother ADH: Causes the distal and collecting tubules of the kidneys to reabsorb more water from the urinary filtrate ADH: Edema, headache, and disorientation ADH: Dehydration from excessive urine output, a condition called diabetes insipidus
Pineal Roof of the third ventricle of the brain Melatonin Biological rhythms - -
Thyroid Throat, just inferior to the larynx Thyroid Hormone and Calcitonin Control the rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation Elevated metabolic rate, nervousness, weight loss, sweating, and irregular heartbeat A condition of mental and physical sluggishness, which is called myxedema
Parathyroid Posterior surface of the thyroid gland Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Causes release of calcium from bone matrix and prods the kidney to reabsorb more calcium and less phosphate from the filtrate. Also stimulates the kidneys to activate vitamin D Loss of calcium from bones, causing deformation, softening, and spontaneous fractures Increases neural excitability and may lead to tetany, prolonged muscle spasms that can result in respiratory paralysis and death
Adrenal Medulla Atop or close to the kidneys Epinephrine (80%) or norepinephrine (20%) Elicit the fight-or-flight response to stressors - -
Adrenal Cortex Atop or close to the kidneys Three major groups of steroid hormones, collectively called corticosteroids: -mineralocorticoids, chiefly aldosterone -glucocorticoids (cortisone, hydrocortisone, and corticosterone) -gonadocorticoids, or sex hormones Mineralocorticoids: Regulate water and electrolyte balance in the extracellular fluids Glucocorticoids: Enable the body to resist long-term stressors Gonadocorticoids: Chiefly androgens produced, but some estrogens Hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids produces abnormal hairiness (hirsutism), and masculinization occurs -
Created by: jgfletcher92