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68WM6 Ph.1 Mod 5

68WM6 Phase 1 Module 5 - The Endocrine and Nervous System Terms

Hormones secreted by the three layers of the adrenal complex. Corticoids
A dwarfism caused by hypo-secretion of the thyroid gland. Cretinism
A condition caused by the hyper-secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal complex. Cushing's syndrome
A condition resulting from hypo-secretion of ADH where large volumes of urine is formed. Diabetes insipidus
A condition resulting from when the pancreatic islet cells secrete too little insulin, resulting in hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus
Gland that secretes hormones into the blood, tissues and other bodily fluids. Endocrine gland
Gland that secretes products into ducts. Exocrine gland
An abnormal protrusion of the eyes. Exopthalmos
A condition produced by hyper-secretion of GH during the early years of life. Gigantism
Hormones that influence carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism that is secreted by the adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoids
The formation of glucose or glycogen from protein or fat compounds. Glucogenesis
An enlargement of the thyroid gland. Goiter
An excess growth of hair, especially in women. Hirsutism
Substances secreted by an endocrine gland and transported in the blood. Hormones
Hormones that influence mineral salt metabolism. Mineralcorticoids
A condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults. Myxedema
A set of glands located on the surface of the thyroid gland. Parathyroid glands
A group of naturally occuring fatty acids that affect many bodily functions. Prostaglandins
Organs or cells acted upon by a particular hormone. Target cell
The masculinization of a female. Virilism
Function of the endocrine system. To communicate with cells using hormones and to reulate a number of metabolic processes within the cells and the whole body.
________ are chemicals released by cells that affect other cells of the body. They come in form of steroids, amines, peptides, proteins or glycoproteins. Hormones
This hormone is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland and promotes milk production following the birth of an infant. Abbreviated as PRL Prolactin
This hormone is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates body cells to grow and reproduce. Abbreviated as GH Growth Hormone
This hormone is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland and controls the secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland. Abbreviated as TSH Thyroid-stimulating Hormone
This hormone is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland and controls the release and secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex. Abbreviated as ACTH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
These neurons are also known as sensory neurons. Afferent Neurons
A delicate, web-like middle layer of the meninges. Arachnoid Mater
Nerve tracts in the spinal cord that carry information to the brain. Ascending Tracks
The portion of the nervous system that regulates the activities of the internal organs. Autonomic Nervous System
Nerve fiber that conducts a nerve impulse away from the neuron cell body. Axon
The brain and spinal cord are components of the ______________________. Central Nervous System
Fluid in the ventricles of the brain, subarachnoid space of the meninges, and the central canal of the spinal cord. Cerebrospinal Fluid
Process of a neuron that receives input from other neuron. Dendrite
Nerve tracts in the spinal cord that carry information from the brain to the muscle and glands. Descending Tracts
Tough outer layer of the meninges. Dura Mater
Another name for motor neurons. Effent neurons
A mass of neuron cell bodies, usually outside the CNS. Ganglia
Ridges or convolutions on the surface of the Cerebrum separated by shallow grooves called a sulcus or deep groove called fissures. Gyri
Membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Meninges
Efferent neurons carry impulse out of brain or spinal cord to muscles or glands. Motor neuron
Fatty material that forms a sheath like covering arounds some axons. Myelin
A nerve cell. Neuron
Chemical that an axon end secretes on an effector or another neuron. Neurotransmitter
Narrow gaps in the myelin sheath that is capable of generating electrical activity by "jumping" from node to node, also known as saltatory conduction. Nodes of Ranvier
The portion of nervous system outside the CNS. Peripheral Nervous System
Inner layer of meninges that encloses the brain and spinal cord. Pia Mater
Cell surface structures that detect changes in the environment and transmit a signal to the inside of the neuron. Receptors
The difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of an undisturbed nerve cell membrane. Resting Potential
Neuron that transmits an impulse from a receptor to the CNS. Sensory Neuron
Portion of the CNS extending from the brain stem through the vertebral cord. Spinal Cord
Space within the meninges between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater Subarachnoid Space
Shallow groove on the surface of the brain. Sulcus
Portion of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord. This portion is responsible to prepare the body for energy-expending and stressful or emergency situations. Sympathetic Nervous System
The connection between the axon of a neuron and the dendrite of another neuron. Synapse
Complete or partial loss of sense of smell. Anosmia
Absence of an eye. Anopia
Thin, watery fluid that fills the space between the cornea and the iris. Aqueous Humor
Inflammation of the eyelid margins. Blepharities
Middle, vascular layer of the eye. Choroid
Coiled tube in the inner ear. Cochlea
Inflammation of the conjunctivia. Conjunctivitis
The transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil and anterior chamber. Cornea
A nerve that arises from the underside of the brain or the brainstem. Cranial Nerve
Double vision. Diplopia
Blindness in one half of the visual field. Hemianopia
Colored muscular part of the eye. Iris
Complex system of connecting chambers and tubes of the inner ear. Labyrinth
Tear Gland Lacrimal gland
Tough outer protective layer of the eye. Sclera
The part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles. Somatic Nervous System
Senses that stem from receptors associated with specialized sensory organs: the nose, eye, ear and tongue. Special Senses
The eardrum. Tympanic Membrane
Clear jellylike substance within the eye. Vitreous Humor
A sensory nerve responsible for the sense of smell. (CN I) Olfactory
A sensory nerve responsible for sending visual signals from the eye to the visual cortex of the occipital lobe. (CN II) Optic
A motor nerve that helps raise the eyelid and helps move the eye upward, toward and away from the midline and downard and away from the midline. (CN III) Oculomotor
A motor nerve that helps move the eye downward and away from the midline. (CN IV) Trochlear
A mixed nerve that carries sensations from parts of the face and eye. It also helps with chewing. (CN V) Trigeminal
A motor nerve that helps move the eye away from the midline. (CN VI) Abducens
A mixed nerve that stimulates muscles of facial expression and carries the sensation of taste. (CN VII) Facial
A form of temporary facial paralysis resulting from damage or trauma to one of the two facial nerves. Bell's palsy
A sensory nerve responsible for hearing and equilibrium. (CN VIII) Vestibulocochlear
A mixed nerve responsible for the gag reflex as well as carrying impulses from the lining of the pharynx, tonsils and posterior third of the tongue. (CN IX) Glossopharyngeal
A mixed nerve responsible for swallowing, speech and autonomic control of smooth muscles and glands in the thorax and abdomen. It also carries impulses from the pharynx, larynx, esophagus and viscera of the thorax and abdomen. (CN X) Vagus
A motor nerve that controls muscles of the upper shoulder. (CN XI) Spinal Accessory
A motor nerve responsible for stimulating the muscles that move the tongue. (CN XII) Hypoglossal
An inadequate production of ACTH that causes autoimmune disease. Addison's disease
Hormone that regulates water and helps retain water in the kidneys. Abbreviated as ADH. Antidiuretic hormone
Hormone primarily released in females that stimulates milk excretion from a mother during breast feeding. Oxytocin
Created by: 730510907