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Organic Compounds

7.6D Organic Compounds

TermDefinition
Atom The smallest particle of an element, made of electrons, protons, and neutrons; basic unit of matter.
Element A pure substance composed of the same type of atom throughout; cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
Molecule A particle made of two or more atoms bonded together; the simplest structural unit of an element or compound.
Compound A substance made of two or more different elements that are chemically combined in fixed amounts and joined by chemical bonds.
Organic Compound A compound that contains organic carbon and other atoms, usually oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or sulfur.
Inorganic Compound Does not contain the carbon-hydrogen atom combination that characterizes organic molecules; not of biological compounds.
Carbon Naturally occurring element of Earth; essential building block of organic compounds; represented as "C" with atomic number of 6 on the Periodic Table of Elements.
Hydrogen Lightest of all gases, occurring mostly in combination with oxygen in water; 1st & simplest element on the periodic table; 1 of the most common elements in the galaxy; represented as "H" with atomic number of 1 on the Periodic Table of Elements.
Oxygen Colorless & odorless gas; life-supporting component of air; forms about 20% of Earth's atmosphere; most abundant element in Earth's crust; produced with glucose during photosynthesis; consumed with glucose during cellular respiration; represented as "O" with atomic number of 8 on the Periodic Table of Elements.
Nitrogen Most abundant gas (78%) in the atmosphere; key element in organisms; represented as "N" with atomic number of 7 on the Periodic Table of Elements.
Phosphorus Mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium; represented as "P" with atomic number of 15 on the Periodic Table of Elements.
Sulfur Pale-yellow, brittle nonmetallic element that occurs widely in nature, especially in volcanic deposits, minerals, natural gas, & petroleum; represented as "S" with atomic number of 16 on the Periodic Table of Elements.
Carbohydrates Biomolecules made of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon that organisms use for structural support and energy storage; can be broken down into simple sugars (glucose) to provide energy; includes starches, fibers and sugars.
Proteins Biomolecules made of amino acids that perform biological functions; build and repair tissues, and supply energy when needed; group of nutrients that provides energy and building blocks for growth and repair of body tissues.
Amino Acids Nitrogen-containing organic molecules that are the building blocks of proteins.
Lipids (Fats) One of the nutrient-providing components of food; used as an energy source in the body, and found in butter, oils, nuts, meat, fish, and some dairy products.