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Patho 1st Plating

QuestionAnswer
Dark matter of genome Noncoding regions
Function of 80% of human genome Binds proteins and functional
Provide criticial architectural planning Noncoding regions
Functions of noncoding protein sequences 1. Promoter and enhancer 2. Binding sites for chromatin structure 3. Non coding regulatory RNAs 4. Transposons 5. Telomere & centromere
~1% of SNP occur in ___________, those that do not, fall in ________ of the genome Coding regions; Regulatory elements
Underlie a large portion of human phenotypic diversity Copy number variations (CNV)
Length of DNA segments in nucleosomes 147 bp
Heterochromatin are cytochemically ________ and cytochemically ________ Dense, inactive
Portion of nuclear chromatin that regulates gene expression and dictates identity and activity Unwound portion
Exposes/obscures gene regulatory elements Chromatin remodelling complexes
Associated with histone marks that make DNA accessible to RNA polymerase Active genes
Associated with histone marks that enable DNA compaction into heterochromatin Inactive genes
AA that can be methylated in histones Lys Arg
Process associated with transcription activation/repression in histones Methylation
AA that can be acetylated in histones Lys
Opens up chormatin and increase transcription Histone acetyl transferases (HAT)
Condenses chromatin Histone deacetylase (HDAC)
AA that can be phosphorylated in histones Ser
High levels of this leads to transcriptional silencing Methylation
Bind to noncoding regions and control long-range looping of DNA Chromatin organizing factors
Has a central role in malignancy Epigenome dysregulation
Encoded by genes that are transcribed but not translated Micro RNA and Long noncoding RNA
Length of miRNA 22 nucleotides
Responsible for posttranscriptional silencing miRNA
Mimics MRNA Small interfering RNAs (siRNA)
Responsible for knockdown technology siRNA
pre-miRNA is processed in the Nucleus
Trims the pre-miRNA and its location Dicer enzyme ; cytoplasm
Acts as a scaffold to stabilize 2˚ or 3˚structures that influence chromatin structure Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)
Worker of cell Proteins
Roads of cell Actin fibers, microtubule
Trucks of cell Kinesin, dynein, myosin
Factories of cell Ribosome
Recycling centers of cell Lysosome
Police of cell Chaperones
Post office of cell Golgi apparatus
Communications of cell Signaling networks
Serves as an electrostatic scaffold for intracellular proteins when phosphorylated Phosphotidylinositol
Phospholipase C Phosphotidylinositol generates intracellular signals when phosphorylated by
Component of plasma membrane that is restricted in the inner surface conferring a negative charge Phosphatidylserine
Becomes an "eat me" signal for phagocytes during apoptosis Phosphatidylserine
Serves as cofactor in blood clot Phosphatidylserine
Components of plasma membrane on the extracellular surface Glycolipids and sphingomyelin
Important in cell-cell, cell-matrix interactions like sperm-egg and inflammation Glycolipids and sphingomyelin
Important in horizontal interactions Lipid rafts
Proteins in lipid bilayer are synthesized in? Cytosol
Insertion of proteins into the membrane may occur through _____ anchors on the extracellular surface Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)
Noncoated PM invaginations involved in potocytosis Caveloae
Transport of solute and/or bound ligand from one face of cell to another (apical --> basolateral) Transcytosis
Diameters of actin, intermediate and microtubules (resp.) 5-9 nm, 10nm, 25nm
Microfilaments made up from the most abundant cytosolic proteins Actin
Microfilaments that control shape and movement Actin
Microfilaments involved in skin and hair Intermediate
Microfilaments that impart tensile strength Intermediate
Microfilaments involved in Progeria Intermediate
Microfilaments that determine position of organelles and direct cell transports Microtubule
In microtubules, MTOC or centrosome is embedded in which end -
Long highways of cell Microtubule
Junction that restricts paracellular movement Occluding (tight)
Junction that sets a boundary between apical and basolateral Occluding (tight)
Junction that attach cells and cytoskeletons to other cells or ECM Anchoring (desmosome)
Junction that is small and rivet-like between cells Spot desmosomes (macula adherens)
Junction that is a broadband Belt desmosome
Junction that attaches cell to ECM Hemidesmosome
Transmembrane connector proteins hemidesmosomes Integrins
Include proteins that generate intracellular signals when cells are subjected to shear stress Focal adhesion complex
Junction that mediate passage of chemical or electrical signals Communicating (gap)
Pores that permite passage of chemicals Connexons
Location of protein modification ER
Site for synthesis of all transmebrane proteins and lipids for PM ER
Retain unmodified proteins in ER until modifications are complete Chaperone
Chaperons are found where? ER
Organelle involved in cystic fibrosis ER
Plays an important role in degrading cytosolic proteins bound to ubiquitin Proteosome
Part of mitochondria that harbors bulk of metabolic enzymes (citric acid cycle) Matrix
Site of ATP synthesis Intermembrane space
Contains the enzyme of respiratory chain Inner membrane
Source of molecules used to synthesize lipids, nucleic acids and proteins Mitochondria
Regulates balance between necrosis and apoptosis Mitochondria
Transcription factors are activated by what type of ligands Lipid-soluble
TF needed for growth MYC & JUN
Interstitial matrix of ECM is synthesized by what type of cell Mesenchymal
Basement membrane of ECM is synthesized by what type of cell Overlying epithelium and underlying mesenchymal
Major constituents of BM Amorphous Type IV Laminin
Collagen is made up of ohw many polypeptide chains 3
Diseases involving collagen Osteogenesis imperfecta Ehler Danlos
Diseases involving elastin Marfan syndrome
Forms highly hydated gells that confer resistance to compressive forces Proteoglycans
Reservoir for growth factors secreted into ECM Proteogylcans
Most abundant glycoprotein in BM Laminin
Provides scaffolding for ECM deposition, angiogenesis and reepithelization of healing wounds Fibronectin
Play a critical role in platelet aggregation Integrin
Influenes locomotion, proliferation, shape & differentiation
Acquite the ability to phosphorylate protein substrates by forming complexes with cyclin Cyclin-dependent kinases
G1-S checkpoint is for Monitoring of DNA integrity before DNA replication
G2-M checkpoint is for Ensuring accurate genetic replication for division
Defective _____ allows development of malignant tumors CDK1 checkpoint proteins
In Warburg Effect, there is increase in __________, __________ and decrease in _______ Cellular uptake of Glucose and Glu, glycolysis; Oxidative phosphorylation
Embryonic stem cell location in blastocyst Inner cell mass
Adult stem cells are protected in Stem cell niches
Nuclease (originally in prokaryotes) used with CRIPS to correct DNA sequences Cas 9
Created by: bacteriophage