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BotanySC:Ch.1

What is Plant Biology?

TermDefinition
Botany Study of plants
What is are the Greek words related to Botany? Botanikos (Botanical), Botane (Plant/Herb), Boskein (To feed)
What is the French word related to Botany? Botanique (Botanical)
Hypothesis Tentative, unproven explanation for something that has been observed
Data Bits of information
Principle Data accumulated and may lead to the formulation of a useful generalization
Theory Group of generalizations (principles) that helps us understand something
Paleobotany The study of plant fossils
Plant Taxonomy Involves describing, naming, and classifying organisms; science of developing methods for grouping organisms; oldest branch of plant study
Plant Geography Study of how and why plants are distributed where they are, did not develop until 19th century
Plant Ecology Study of the interaction of plants with one another and with their environment
Plant Morphology Study of form and structure of plants
Genetics The science of heredity
Genomics Focuses on genes and their function, has burst onto genetics scene and how it impacts nearly all genetic research
Cell Biology (also, Cytology) is the science of cell structure and function
What percentage of the biomass constitutes for plant life? Plant life constitutes more than 98% of total biomass
Biomass Collective dry weight of living organisms
What is the interaction between plants, animals, and humans? Plants absorb light for energy, and humans eat plants and animals who eat plants; all living organisms are totally dependent on green organisms
Overpopulation Earth remains constant in size but human population continues to grow
Do humans leave an impact on the environment? Yes, human beings have had a major impact on the environment, mostly negative; humans have dumped wastes and pollutants
What do plants provide? Plants provide oxygen, food, shelter, clothing, industrial products, and medicine; human activities threaten this
What is important about microscopic organisms? Microorganisms play a vital role in recycling plant and animal wastes, and aid in the building of healthy soil
What is science? Broadly defined as "a search for knowledge of the natural world"
What are botanists? Botanists are scientists who study plants
What lead to botany becoming a science? Curiosity about how plants reproduced and how they were put together lead to "it" becoming a science
What does science involve? Science involves observation, recording, organization, and classification of facts and more important, involves what is done with the facts
What is the scientific procedure? Involves process of experimentation, observation, and verifying/discarding of info. chiefly thru inductive reasoning
What is the scientific method? Question -> Hypothesis -> Experiments -> Theory; describes the procedures of developing and testing hypotheses
What does testing the hypothesis determine? Testing determines correct or incorrect
When will a hypothesis be accepted? To be accepted, experiments to test hypothesis must be repeatable and capable of being duplicated
What are the two forms of an experiment? Variable and Control Group
Plant Anatomy Chiefly concerned with internal structure of plants
Who is Marcello Malpighi? Described various tissues in stems and roots
Who is Nehemiah Grew? Described of wood more precisely
Uses for Plant Anatomy? Plant anatomy can be used to find clues of the past and also used to solve crimes
Plant Physiology Concerned with plant function
Who is J.B. van Helmont? Established Plant Physiology; first to demonstrate that plants do not have the same nutritional needs as animals
What was Helmont´s experiment and conclusion? Experimented on willow tree; concluded that the tree had added to its bulk and size from water being absorbed
What is wrong with Helmont´s conclusion? Now known that the growth of the willow tree was due to photosynthetic activity
Who is Carolus Linnaeus? Credited for present system of naming and classifying plants
What is related to Plant Taxonomy? It is related to Plant Systematics but broader
What is the book ´Silent Spring´? This book, by Rachel Carson, increased public awareness of Plant Ecology; Contains more than 500 new toxic chemicals used by U.S. as pesticides; detailed how these chemicals and others have negative impacts on the environment
Who is Gregor Mendel? Gregor Mendel was a monk who studied genetics through pea plants