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FA Respi Patho

Dx : Reid index more than 50% Chronic bronchitis
Dx : Decreased FEV1/FVC ratio. Early onset hypoxemia, late onset dyspnea Chronic bronchitis
Dx : Decreased FEV1/FVC ratio. Early onset dyspnea, late onset hypoxemia Emphysema
Most common cause of centriacinar emphysema? Smoking
Most common cause of panacinar emphysema? Alpha 1 - antitrypsin deficiency
Dx : Decreased inspiratory : expiratory ratio. Pulsus paradoxus. Asthma
Dx : Chronic necrotizing infection of bronchi. Bronchiectasis
Name 3 drugs which can cause restrictive lung disease. Bleomycin, Busulfan, Amiodarone
Which type of emphysema usually involves the upper lobes? Centriacinar
Which type of emphysema usually involves the lower lobes? Panacinar
Dx : Pneumoconiosis which has no risk of TB or lung cancer. Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis
Dx : Pneumoconiosis which has increased risk for both TB and lung cancer. Silicosis
Dx : Pneumoconisos which has increased risk for lung cancer but not TB. Asbestosis, Berylliosis
Dx : Opacities containing collagen and quartz Silicosis
Dx : Pneumoconiosis associated with nuclear and aerospace industry Berylliosis
Smoking has an additive effect with asbestosis in development of type of cancer? Bronchogenic cancer
What type of cancer caused by asbestosis which is not additive with smoking? Mesothelioma
Dx : Pneumoconiosis which affects lower lobes. Asbestosis
Dx : Pneumoconiosis associated with shipbuilders, roofers, and plumbers. Asbestosis
Dx : Ferruginous bodies in lung Asbestosis
Dx : Ivory white pleural plaques Asbestosis
Dx : Rheumatoid nodules + pneumoconiosis Caplan syndrome
What is the cause of hypersensitivity in Farmer's lungs? Thermophylic actinomyces (Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula)
What is the cause of Silo Filler's disease? Inhalation of gases (oxides of nitrogen) from plant material
Dx : Hypersensitivity, textile workers Byssinosis
How do you measure lung maturity in a neonate? Lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid, would be less than 1.5 in RDS
What is the main complication in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome? PDA (other complications include blindness, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia from superoxide free radical damage during oxygen therapy)
List 3 risk factors for Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Prematurity, Maternal Diabetes, Cesarean delivery
What is the difference between central and obstructive sleep apnea? In obstructive sleep apnea, there is respiratory effort against airway obstruction.
Name 1 complication of sleep apnea. Pulmonary hypertension leading to cor pulmonale
Dx : Bronchial breath sounds over lesion, dull percussion, increased fremitus Lobar pneumonia
Dx : Decreased breath sounds at affected area, decreased resonance, decreased fremitus, tracheal deviation toward side of lesion. Bronchial obstruction
Dx : Decreased breath sounds at affected area, dull percussion, decreased fremitus Pleural effusion
Dx : Decreased breath sounds, hyperresonant, absent fremitus, trachea deviate away from side of lesion Tension pneumothorax
List the complications of lung cancer. SPHERE of complications. Superior vena cava syndrome, Pancoast's tumor, Horner's syndrome, Endocrine (paraneoplastic) Recurrent laryngeal nerve symptoms (hoarseness), Effusions (pleural or pericardial)
Which type of lung cancer has keratin pearls? Squamous cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancers are located centrally? Squamous cell carcinoma and Small cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancers are located peripherally? Adenocarcinoma and Large cell carcinoma.
Smoking is mainly associated with which type of lung cancer? Squamous cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer is a neoplasm of neuroendocrine Kulchitsky cells? Small cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer has a histology of small dark blue cells? Small cell carcinoma (Kulchitsky cells)
Which type of lung cancer is most aggressive and often associated with ectopic production of ACTH and ADH? Small cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer is not responsive to chemotherapy and must be removed surgically? Large cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer has a histology of pleomorphic giant cells with leukocyte fragments in cytoplasm? Large cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer may lead to Lambert-Eaton syndrome? Small cell carcinoma
Which type of lung cancer is associated with flushing, diarrhea, wheezing and salivation? Carcinoid tumor (because it secretes serotonin)
What are the symptoms seen in Horner's syndrome? Ptosis, Miosis, Ipsilateral anhidrosis
Dx : Carcinoma which occurs at apex of lung and may affect cervical sympathetic plexus. Pancoast tumor
Name the most frequent organism which causes lobar pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
List the organisms which cause bronchopneumonia. Staph. aureus, H. influenza, Klebsiella, Strep. pyogenes
List the causes of interstitial pneumonia. Viruses (RSV, adenovirus), Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia
List 2 causes of lung abscess. Bronchial obstruction, Aspiration of oropharyngeal contents
Pleural effusion with high protein content and cloudy is transudate, exudate or lymphatic fluid? Exudate
Dx : Newborn cyanotic during breast feeding. Choanal atresia (cannot breathe through nose)
Child with nasal polyp most probably has what disease? Cystic fibrosis
Women with aspirin polyp most probably is on what drug? Aspirin
Dx : Symptoms of myasthenia gravis, mediastinal mass. Thyoma
Dx : Fever 24-36 hours after surgery Resorption Atelectasis
What is the gold standard confirmatory test for pulmonary infarction? Pulmonary angiogram
Name the most common organism involved in nosocomial pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (live on respirators)
Name the most common organism involved in pneumonia in immunocompromised host. Pneumocystis jiroveci
Created by: lemontea88



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