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bio204.s1.d45

cava bio 204 s1.d45 3.14 Glycolysis and Fermentation

QuestionAnswer
The enzymes in your digestive system break down starch, which is a carbohydrate, into molecules of glucose . The enzymes in your digestive system break down starch, which is a carbohydrate, into molecules of glucose .
K12 mis-information: While [-s] *can* be converted to glucose (in a complicated process), this rarely happens. [-s] are usually metabolized according to a fairly straight-forward process called beta oxidation. K12 mis-information: While fats *can* be converted to glucose (in a complicated process), this rarely happens. Fats are usually metabolized according to a fairly straight-forward process called beta oxidation.
More K12 Mis-Information: Glucose is *NOT THE [...]* starting point for the complex process that ends in ATP production. More K12 Mis-Information: Glucose is *NOT THE ONLY* starting point for the complex process that ends in ATP production.
Cellular Respiration: the process of breaking down high-energy molecules (NOT JUST GLUCOSE!) for the production of ATP in the presence of [...]. Cellular Respiration: the process of breaking down high-energy molecules (NOT JUST GLUCOSE!) for the production of ATP in the presence of oxygen.
Aerobic = involving [...] Aerobic = involving oxygen
Anaerobic = NOT involving [...] Anaerobic = NOT involving oxygen
Anaerobic respiration = a process that breaks down high-energy molecules to form ATP. However, unlike aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration accomplished essentially the same task using a substitute for [...] Anaerobic respiration = a process that breaks down high-energy molecules to form ATP. However, unlike aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration accomplished essentially the same task using a substitute for oxygen
[-tion] is breaking down high-energy molecules to form ATP. It differs from respiration because [-tion] breaks down molecules to a lesser degree and does not include the Krebs cycle or the Electron Transport Chain. Fermentation is breaking down high-energy molecules to form ATP. It differs from respiration because fermentation breaks down molecules to a lesser degree and does not include the Krebs cycle or the Electron Transport Chain.
When ATP (adenosine [...]-phosphate; 3-phosphate) is used to power the tiny chemical machines inside the cell, it loses one of its phosphate groups and becomes ADP (adenosine [...]-phosphate; 2-phosphate) When ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate; 3-phosphate) is used to power the tiny chemical machines inside the cell, it loses one of its phosphate groups and becomes ADP (adenosine di-phosphate; 2-phosphate)
Cellular Respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic) involve moving electrons around. Molecules inside the cell pass electrons around like footballs. We sometimes call these tiny football players 'electron [-s]'... a reasonable name if you ask me. Cellular Respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic) involve moving electrons around. Molecules inside the cell pass electrons around like footballs. We sometimes call these tiny football players 'electron carriers'... a reasonable name if you ask me.
The Krebs cycle is like the quarter back of a tiny molecular football team. He passes tiny electron footballs to little players that we'll call 'electron carriers'. When one of the players makes a touchdown, they score lots of [...]. The Krebs cycle is like the quarter back of a tiny molecular football team. He passes tiny electron footballs to little players that we'll call 'electron carriers'. When one of the players makes a touchdown, they score lots of ATP.
In the football analogy, the electron carriers pass the electron-football to one another in a play called the [...] chain. In the football analogy, the electron carriers pass the electron-football to one another in a play called the electron transport chain.
In order for cellular respiration to happen, our Krebs-Cycle quarterback needs to get an pack of footballs from carbohydrates, fats, or any other food source. When they make energy-footballs out of glucose, we call that [....] In order for cellular respiration to happen, our Krebs-Cycle quarterback needs to get an pack of footballs from carbohydrates, fats, or any other food source. When they make energy-footballs out of glucose, we call that glycolysis
glycolysis (glyco=sugar, lys=[...]) glycolysis (glyco=sugar, lys=split)
Glycolysis is the splitting of glucose molecules, and it takes place in the [...] of cells; not the mitochondria. Glycolysis is the splitting of glucose molecules, and it takes place in the cytosol of cells; not the mitochondria.
K12 says that [-sis] (the splitting of glucose) is the first step of cellular respiration. K12 is obsessed with glucose. We can just as easily start cellular respiration by splitting up fatty acids through a process called beta oxidation. K12 says that glycolysis (the splitting of glucose) is the first step of cellular respiration. K12 is obsessed with glucose. We can just as easily start cellular respiration by splitting up fatty acids through a process called beta oxidation.
MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis REQUIRES these things to start: • 1 [...] molecule • 2 ATP molecules • 2 NAD+ molecules MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis REQUIRES these things to start: • 1 glucose molecule • 2 ATP molecules • 2 NAD+ molecules
MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis REQUIRES these things to start: • 1 glucose molecule • 2 [...] molecules • 2 NAD+ molecules MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis REQUIRES these things to start: • 1 glucose molecule • 2 ATP molecules • 2 NAD+ molecules
MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis REQUIRES these things to start: • 1 glucose molecule • 2 ATP molecules • 2 [...] molecules MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis REQUIRES these things to start: • 1 glucose molecule • 2 ATP molecules • 2 NAD+ molecules
MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis PRODUCES: • 2 [...] molecules • 4 ATP molecules (it gives back twice what it uses) • 2 NADH molecules MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis PRODUCES: • 2 pyruvate (aka: pyruvic acid) molecules • 4 ATP molecules (it gives back twice what it uses) • 2 NADH molecules
MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis PRODUCES: • 2 pyruvate (aka: pyruvic acid) molecules • 4 [...] molecules (it gives back twice what it uses) • 2 NADH molecules MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis PRODUCES: • 2 pyruvate (aka: pyruvic acid) molecules • 4 ATP molecules (it gives back twice what it uses) • 2 NADH molecules
MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis PRODUCES: • 2 pyruvate (aka: pyruvic acid) molecules • 4 ATP molecules (it gives back twice what it uses) • 2 [...] molecules MEMORIZE THIS Glycolysis PRODUCES: • 2 pyruvate (aka: pyruvic acid) molecules • 4 ATP molecules (it gives back twice what it uses) • 2 NADH molecules
The main end product of glycolysis is 2 molecules of [...]. The main end product of glycolysis is 2 molecules of pyruvate (aka pyruvic acid).
Pyruvate is a 3-carbon-long molecule, and glucose is a 6-carbon-long molecule, so if you split 1 glucose in half, you have enough material to make [...] pyruvates. Pyruvate is a 3-carbon-long molecule, and glucose is a 6-carbon-long molecule, so if you split 1 glucose in half, you have enough material to make 2 pyruvates.
After glycolysis, the 2 molecules of [...] can take one of several energy-producing pathways. After glycolysis, the 2 molecules of pyruvate (aka pyruvic acid) can take one of several energy-producing pathways.
Pyruvate can be converted into [...], the package of footballs that we give to the Krebs Cycle; our cellular respiration quarter back. He would then throw the footballs to electron carriers. Pyruvate can be converted into Acetyl-CoA, the package of footballs that we give to the Krebs Cycle; our cellular respiration quarter back. He would then throw the footballs to electron carriers.
Fatty acids are converted into [...] in a process called beta oxidation. [...] is the bundle of footballs that we give to our Krebs-Cycle quarterback. Fatty acids are converted into Acetyl-CoA in a process called beta oxidation. Acetyl-CoA is the bundle of footballs that we give to our Krebs-Cycle quarterback.
If cellular respiration is not an option (this happens in our muscles when we run low on oxygen), then pyruvate can be metabolized in a relatively brief process called [f-]. If cellular respiration is not an option (this happens in our muscles when we run low on oxygen), then pyruvate can be metabolized in a relatively brief process called fermentation.
K12 mis-information: Anaerobic respiration and fermentation are not the same thing. Anaerobic respiration still uses our [...] cycle quarterback and our tiny electron football team. Fermentation doesn't. K12 mis-information: Anaerobic respiration and fermentation are not the same thing. Anaerobic respiration still uses our Krebs cycle quarterback and our tiny electron football team. Fermentation doesn't.
In our football analogy, the difference between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration is that in aerobic respiration, [...] is the player who always makes the touchdown. In anaerobic respiration, it's someone else. In our football analogy, the difference between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration is that in aerobic respiration, oxygen is the player who always makes the touchdown. In anaerobic respiration, it's someone else.
Our muscles perform [...] acid fermentation when they are low on oxygen. Our muscles perform lactic acid fermentation when they are low on oxygen.
Here is one possible chemical pathway for cellular respiration. Glucose -> [...] -> acetyl-CoA -> Krebs Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain -> lots of ATP *Note: This is vastly simplified Here is one possible chemical pathway for cellular respiration. Glucose -> pyruvate -> acetyl-CoA -> Krebs Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain -> lots of ATP *Note: This is vastly simplified
Here is one possible chemical pathway for cellular respiration. Glucose -> pyruvate -> [...] -> Krebs Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain -> lots of ATP *Note: This is vastly simplified Here is one possible chemical pathway for cellular respiration. Glucose -> pyruvate -> acetyl-CoA -> Krebs Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain -> lots of ATP *Note: This is vastly simplified
Here is one possible chemical pathway for cellular respiration. Glucose -> pyruvate -> acetyl-CoA -> [...] Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain -> lots of ATP *Note: This is vastly simplified Here is one possible chemical pathway for cellular respiration. Glucose -> pyruvate -> acetyl-CoA -> Krebs Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain -> lots of ATP *Note: This is vastly simplified
Here is one possible chemical pathway for cellular respiration. Glucose -> pyruvate -> acetyl-CoA -> Krebs Cycle -> [...] Chain -> lots of ATP *Note: This is vastly simplified Here is one possible chemical pathway for cellular respiration. Glucose -> pyruvate -> acetyl-CoA -> Krebs Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain -> lots of ATP *Note: This is vastly simplified
Here is one possible chemical pathway for cellular respiration. Glucose -> pyruvate -> acetyl-CoA -> Krebs Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain -> lots of [...] *Note: This is vastly simplified Here is one possible chemical pathway for cellular respiration. Glucose -> pyruvate -> acetyl-CoA -> Krebs Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain -> lots of ATP *Note: This is vastly simplified
Created by: mr.shapard