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bio204.s1.d35

cava bio 204 s1.d35 3.03 Cell Organelles

QuestionAnswer
when you look at a cell, you can see inside it, and on the inside are these tiny structures that reminded people of organs; they looked like the teeny tiny organs of the cells. We call them [...] when you look at a cell, you can see inside it, and on the inside are these tiny structures that reminded people of organs; they looked like the teeny tiny organs of the cells. We call them organelles
Organelles are surrounded by [...] just like cells are... some of them look very much like cells within cells. Organelles are surrounded by membranes just like cells are... some of them look very much like cells within cells.
The [...] around organelles contain all the useful chemicals inside them so that they don't go floating out into the vastness of the cell and get lost. The membranes around organelles contain all the useful chemicals inside them so that they don't go floating out into the vastness of the cell and get lost.
It's only the big [...] cells where you'll find organelles. [...] cells are really small, so they don't worry about special molecules getting lost. They just let it all hang out inside. It's only the big eukaryotic cells where you'll find organelles. Prokaryotic cells are really small, so they don't worry about special molecules getting lost. They just let it all hang out inside.
Containing special chemicals inside [...] is what allows eukaryotic cells to get so much bigger than prokaryotic cells. Without this level of organization, it would take too long for the right chemicals to bump into each other within that large cell. Containing special chemicals inside membranes is what allows eukaryotic cells to get so much bigger than prokaryotic cells. Without this level of organization, it would take too long for the right chemicals to bump into each other within that large cell.
[...] are the best-known examples of prokaryotic cells. Bacteria are the best-known examples of prokaryotic cells.
DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell, and it duplicates itself there. In addition, a region of the nucleus called the [...] is where ribosome synthesis begins (the place where the ribosomal RNA is copied from the master copy in the DNA). DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell, and it duplicates itself there. In addition, a region of the nucleus called the nucleolus is where ribosome synthesis begins (the place where the ribosomal RNA is copied from the master copy in the DNA).
[...] are special organelles that perform a large number of chemical reactions that break down various high energy molecules while making ATP. Mitochondria are special organelles that perform a large number of chemical reactions that break down various high energy molecules while making ATP.
Mitochondria can break down many molecules in order to make ATP: fats, sugars, lactic acid, acetic acid; They aren't limited to [...] as the K12 lessons suggest. Mitochondria can break down many molecules in order to make ATP: fats, sugars, lactic acid, acetic acid; They aren't limited to glucose as the K12 lessons suggest.
Mitochondria actually have two membranes and they use the space between their two membranes to make most of the [...] they produce... it's complicated and we'll learn more about it later. Mitochondria actually have two membranes and they use the space between their two membranes to make most of the ATP they produce... it's complicated and we'll learn more about it later.
Like all proteins, myosin and actin are assembled by structures within cells called [...]. Like all proteins, myosin and actin are assembled by structures within cells called ribosomes.
Some ribosomes float in the cell's cytoplasm, but most are located on the [...], another organelle. Some ribosomes float in the cell's cytoplasm, but most are located on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), another organelle.
The [...] endoplasmic reticulum is the site of most protein synthesis. It's called '[...]' because it's studded with lots of bumpy little ribosomes. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of most protein synthesis. It's called 'rough' because it's studded with lots of bumpy little ribosomes.
A firefly relies on a protein called luciferase to produce light. Luciferase is an [...] that catalyzes a light-producing reaction in a special organ in the insect's abdomen. (luz/luci=light, fer=bearing, -ase=[...]; light-bearing [...]) A firefly relies on a protein called luciferase to produce light. Luciferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a light-producing reaction in a special organ in the insect's abdomen. (luz/luci=light, fer=bearing, -ase=enzyme; light-bearing enzyme)
'Lucifer' was the Roman name for [...], the brightest planet. Literally, lucifer means light-bearer, or light-bringer. [...] was also called the morning star when it appears in the east before sunrise (as it sometimes does). 'Lucifer' was the Roman name for Venus, the brightest planet. Literally, lucifer means light-bearer, or light-bringer. Venus was also called the morning star when it appears in the east before sunrise (as it sometimes does).
Inside the Endoplasmic Reticulum, many proteins are packaged in tiny membrane bubbles called [...] (little bubbles). These tiny vessels ferry their contents to places. Inside the Endoplasmic Reticulum, many proteins are packaged in tiny membrane bubbles called vesicles (little bubbles). These tiny vessels ferry their contents to places.
The [...] Endoplasmic Reticulum isn't studded with ribosomes; proteins aren't made there. Instead, enzymes in the [...] ER modify existing proteins. The smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum isn't studded with ribosomes; proteins aren't made there. Instead, enzymes in the smooth ER modify existing proteins.
The Golgi body lies close to both the [...] and the [...] . It receives the products of the ER (mostly proteins), sorts their contents, modifies them, and distributes them throughout the cell. The Golgi body lies close to both the ER and the cell membrane . It receives the products of the ER (mostly proteins), sorts their contents, modifies them, and distributes them throughout the cell.
The Golgi body is specialized for making vesicles (little bubbles). It's very similar to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but the Golgi body tends to make vesicles that [...] the cell, whereas the smooth ER makes vesicles that [...] the cell. The Golgi body is specialized for making vesicles (little bubbles). It's very similar to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but the Golgi body tends to make vesicles that leave the cell, whereas the smooth ER makes vesicles that travel within the cell.
The Golgi body inside a snail's skin cells packages slime into vesicles that travel to the [...] of the cell and dump the slime outside the cell. The Golgi body inside a snail's skin cells packages slime into vesicles that travel to the outside of the cell and dump the slime outside the cell.
[...] (lys=split, soma=body) are filled with enzymes that break down many materials; they are little bodies in the cell that split apart other things.... you wouldn't want these enzyme floating around the rest of the cell. Lysosomes (lys=split, soma=body) are filled with enzymes that break down many materials; they are little bodies in the cell that split apart other things.... you wouldn't want these enzyme floating around the rest of the cell.
Lysosomes also play an important role in the [...] system. Cells called macrophages (macro=big, phago=to eat; big eaters), for example, engulf bacteria and digest them with enzymes contained in lysosomes. Lysosomes also play an important role in the immune system. Cells called macrophages (macro=big, phago=to eat; big eaters), for example, engulf bacteria and digest them with enzymes contained in lysosomes.
Photosynthesis takes place in organelles called [...] (chloro=green, plast=formation; a green formation in the cell) Photosynthesis takes place in organelles called chloroplasts (chloro=green, plast=formation; a green formation in the cell)
[...] (chloro=green, phyl=leaf) is the green pigment in chloroplasts that absorbs sunlight... sort of like the black chemicals in solar panels. Chlorophyll (chloro=green, phyl=leaf) is the green pigment in chloroplasts that absorbs sunlight... sort of like the black chemicals in solar panels.
Plant cells also contain a large central compartment called a central [...] (vacu=empty space, central=at the center; note: they look empty under the microscope) Plant cells also contain a large central compartment called a central vacuole (vacu=empty space, central=at the center; note: they look empty under the microscope)
The central vacuole stores water, ions, and wastes. When it is full, it pushes against the cell membrane and cell wall, making the plant [...]. The central vacuole stores water, ions, and wastes. When it is full, it pushes against the cell membrane and cell wall, making the plant rigid.
Plant cells are surrounded by a rigid [...] , another structure not found in animal cells, which helps give shape and support to plants. Plant cells are surrounded by a rigid cell wall , another structure not found in animal cells, which helps give shape and support to plants.
[...] such as mushrooms and mold also surround their cells with a cell wall. Fungi such as mushrooms and mold also surround their cells with a cell wall.
Most bacteria surround their cells with a [...]. Most bacteria surround their cells with a cell wall.
The cell walls of plants, fungi, and bacteria are made of [...] substances. The cell walls of plants, fungi, and bacteria are made of different substances.
Created by: mr.shapard