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Biology Words 2

starting point for learning vocab words C 8-11

METABOLISM The chemical processes that occur in an organism to maintain life. Some substances are broken down to yield energy while other substances necessary for life are made... includes cell growth, and reproduction
PHOTOSYNTHESIS Metabolic process in organisms with chlorophyll that uses light to produce food ( glucose) from carbon dioxide and water..ENERGY STORAGE PROCESS. Oxygen is generated as a byproduct
CELLULAR RESPIRATION Metabolic process in all organisms that converts chemical energy from nutrients into ATP ( usable energy for cells).. releasing waste products carbon dioxide and water
ATP Principal molecule for storing and transferring energy in cells, Often referred to as energy currency of cell. Made during cellular respiration
AEROBIC RESPIRATION Efficient type of cellular respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen. This type of respiration produces much more energy for cells ( glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain)
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Type of cellular respiration that occurs when cells lack oxygen. This places in yeast, bacteria and muscles ( when exercise is strenuous)and yields less energy than aerobic cellular respiration.( glycolysis and fermentation)
CHROMOSOMES DNA-containing structures that carry genetic material from one generation to another
MITOSIS Second main stage of cell cycle during which the cell's replicated DNA divides and two genetically identical diploid daughter cells are produced
MEIOSIS Reduction division process, occuring only in reproductive cells, in which one diploid(2n) cell produces four haploid(n) cells that are not genetically identical
INTERPHASE first stage of the cell cycle, during which a cell grows, matures, and replicates its DNA
HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOME One of two paired chromosomes, one from each parent, that carries genes for a specific trait at the same location.
GAMETE A haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis, that can combine with another haploid sex cell and produce a diploid fertilized egg(zygote)
GENE Functional unit that controls inherited trait expression that is passes on from one generation to another generation
FERTILIZATION Process by which haploid gametes combine, forming a diploid cell with 2n chromosomes, with n chromosomes from the female parent and n chromosomes from the male parent
GENOTYPE An organism's allele pairs
PHENOTYPE Observable characteristics that is expressed as a result of an allele pair
ALLELE Alternative form that a single gene may have for a particular trait.
HETEROZYGOUS Organism with two different alleles for a specific trait
HOMOZYGOUS Organism with two of the same alleles for a specific trait
HYBRID Organism heterozygous for a specific trait
PEDIGREE Diagrammed family history tht is used to study inheritance patterns of a trait through several generations and that can be used to predict disorders in future offspring
AUTOSOME Chromosome that is NOT a sex chromosome
SEX CHROMOSOME X or Y chromosome; paired sex chromosomes determine an individual's gender - XX individuals are female and XY individuals are male
CARRIER individual that is heterozygous for a recessive disorder such as cystic fibrosis . They do not have the disorder but may pass it on to offspring since they have one recessive gene
Created by: shemehl