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BIO WORDS 1

starting point for learning biology vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
BIOLOGY The study of life
SPECIES A group of organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of interbreeding to produce offspring
HOMEOSTASIS Process that living things use to actively maintain fairly stable conditions necessary for survival
ADAPTATION A trait that makes an individual successful at gaining resources, surviving, and/or reproducing
THEORY A tested and widely accepted model that explains and predicts facts about the natural world
HYPOTHESIS A proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence to explain a natural phenomena
CHEMICAL REACTION A process in which one or more substances are converted to one or more different substances.
ELEMENT A substance that is composed on the same type of atoms and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
MOLECULE A group of atoms bonded together representing a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction
ENZYME A type of protein produced by living cells that accelerates ( or catalyze) chemical reactions
MACROMOLECULE A molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, lipid, or carbohydrate
SOLUTE A substance that is dissolved by a liquic, the lesser portion of a solution
SOLVENT A substance capable of dissolving another substance, the greater portion of a solution
POLAR An asymmetric molecule with positive and negative charges
CARBOHYDRATE A large organic molecule that provides fuel and builds structures for living organisms
LIPID A large organic molecule that stores energy and regulates the body's metabolic processes.
PROTEIN A large organic molecule that provides structural support, storage, transport, cell communication, movement and defense for living organisms.
NUCLEIC ACID A large organic molecule that enables organisms to reproduce genetic information from one generation to the next
EUKARYOTIC CELL Cells with a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and whose DNA is found in chromosomes. These cells also contain specialized membrane-bound organelles
PROKARYOTIC CELL In unicellular organisms, these cells lack membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. DNA is not organized into chromosomes
PLASMA MEMBRANE Essential structure found in all cells, made of lipids and proteins enclosing the cytoplasm and having a major role regulating what enters and exits the cells
CELL Smallest unit of structure and function in an organism typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm, genetic material, and ribosomes ( often called building blocks of life)
NUCLEUS Large membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains the genetic material that codes for the vital functions of the cell.
MITOCHONDRIA Organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs to convert glucose into ATP( usable cell energy)
CHLOROPLAST Green organelle in photosynthetic eukaryotic cells, the green pigment chlorophyll pigment traps light during photosynthesis
DIFFUSION The natural movement of molecules or particles from regions of higher to lower concentration in order to spread out and become evenly mixed
OSMOSIS Special type of diffusion ...diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
HYPERTONIC SOLUTION A solution with a HIGHER concentration of solute ( dissolved substance) than some other specified solution. When a cell is bathed in this solution the water will be drawn out of the cell
HYPOTONIC SOLUTION A solution with LESS solutes ( a lower concentration) than other solutions to which it is compared. a cell in this solution would cause the water to diffuse into the cell ( build up of osmotic pressure)
ISOTONIC SOLUTION A solution with the SAME concentration of solutes as another solution with which it is compared... This allows for the free movement of water across the membrane w/o changing the concentration of solutes on either side
Created by: shemehl