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A&P Finals Test

What are the functions of the lymphatic system? Transport and drainage of excessive interstitial fluid and defend against disease
Where does lymph originate? Blood plasma
Where does lymph ultimately dump into? Subclavian vein
What is the function of lymph nodes? Removes and destroys bacteria, viruses, and cellular debris
What is the function of the spleen? Filters blood. Old blood cells removed, macrophages also destroy bacteria and viruses that are carried in the blood
What is the function of the thymus? Production of T-lymphocytes
What are types of non-specific immunity? Species specific, mechanical barriers, enzymatic action, interferons, inflammation and phagocytes
What is an antigen? Any substance recognized by lymphocytes as foreign to the body (not self)
What is an antibody? Produced by the body that can provide immunity against a specific antigen
What specific type of cells produce antibodies The plasm cell of the B-Cells
What is the difference between memory B-cells and plasma cells? Plasma cells produce the antibodies and B-cells remember the antigen
What is the difference between primary and secondary immunity? Primary =the production of antibodies and destruction of foreign cells and secondary =B-cells which remember the antigen by its shape (Responds more quickly)
What is Titer Concentration of specific antibodies in the blood
What is the function of a killer T-cell? Attach to foreign cells and kill or inhibit their growth (needs t-helper cell)
What is adema? Swelling due to accumulation of tissue fluid
What cause adema? Lymphatic system becomes obstructed by injury of surgery or venous pressure
Where do lymphocytes originate? Red bone marrow
Where do T-cells mature? Thymus
Where do B-cells mature? Red bone marrow
What is an autoimmune disease? Body tissues are attacked by our own immune system
What is the most abundant antibody? Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
What type of antibodies are present in the secretion of milk and saliva? Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
What type of immunity is acquired from actually having the disease? Natually acquired active immunity
IgG passes from mother to fetus in fetal circulation and IgA in milk describes what type of immunity? Naturally acquired passive immunity
What type of immunity is acquired from vaccinations? Artificially acquired active immunity
What are the 2 types of T-Cells? Killer T-cells and Helper T-Cells
What is a natural killer cell? Part of our immune system and are cells that kill target cells that are infected with a virus by perforating the cell
What is the function of the seminiferous tubules? Production of sperm
In the reproduction of males, what is produced in the interstitial cells? Testosterone 24/7
What is the purpose of the epididymis Maturation of sperm and the storage of sperm until ejaculated or reabsorbed
What is the purpose of the vas deferns? Carry sperm from the epididymuis to the urethra?
What prevents movement of sperm into urethra but doesn't reduce semen volume or libido? Vasectomy
What is the purpose of the urethra in woman? Urination
What is the purpose of the urethra in men? Urination and reproduction
What 2 assessory sex glands produce the major volume of semen? Seminal vesicles and prostate
What is the primary sex organ in woman Ovaries
What is the purpose of the fallopian tubes (oviducts)? Carries ova to the uterus
What area of the female reproductive system is the site for fertilization? Fallopian tubes
What is the function of the uterus? Sustain the eveloping embryo/fetus
What are the 3 layers of the uterus? Endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium
What lining of the uterus is sloughed off during menstruation? Endometrium
What is the purpose of the myometrium? Expel the fetus during birth and to expel the endometrium during menstruation
When does ovulation occur? Day 14
When is estrogen and progesterone concentration the highest? Day 21
Where is estrogen and progesterone produced? Corpus luteum
What effect does estrogen and progesterone have on FSH secretion? Low volumes of estrogen and progesterone stimulates the secretion of FSH
What is the role of FSH? Causes growth of follicle
How do hormonal contraceptives work Produces high volumes of estrogen and progesterone so that the body won't produce FSH
What hormone is produced by the developing embryo to sustain the corpus luteum? HCG
What is the functional unit of the lungs? Alveoli
What are the alveoli made of? Microscopic air sacs composed of a single layer of simple squamous epithelial cells surrounded by capillaries
How are oxygen and CO2 exchanged between blood and the alveoli? Simple diffusion
What tubes carry air to the alveoli? Bronchii
What is the trachea constructed of? Rings of hyaline cartilage with a band of smooth muscles forming the posterior wall
What is the major stimulous for inhaling? Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in blood
The diaphram relaxes and pushes up in inhalation or exhalation? Exhalation
The diaphragm contracts and pulls down during inhalation or exhalation? Inhalation
What is the purpose of the pleural membrane? Causes expansion of the lungs which reduces the air pressure inside the lungs
What is the role of the glomerulus Filters the blood
What is the role of the kidney tubules? Function in reabsorption
What is the role of the collecting ducts Delivers final urine products
How are water, glucose, amino acids and electrolytes reabsorbed from the kidney tubules into the peritubular capillaries Active transport
What are the functions of the ureter? Movement of urine into the bladder
What is the funtion of the bladder? Store and release urine
What is the function of the urethra? Movement of urine from the bladder out of the body
What moves urine through the ureters? Paristaltic contractions
What type of tissue forms the lining of the bladder and ureters? Transitional epithelium
What are normal components of urine? 95% water, urea, uric acid, creatinine, electrolytes, hydrogen ions
What is the mechanism for the transportation of oxygen? Hemoglobin
What is the mechanism for the transportation of carbon dioxide? Bicarbonate ions
What do T cells and B cells respond to? A specific antigen
What cells stimulate killer T cells and B cells? Helper T cells
How is water reabsorbed from the kidney tubules into the peritubular capillaries? osmosis
How is glucose and amino acids reabsorbed from the kidney tubules into the peritubular capillaries? Active transport
How is electrolytes reabsorbed from the kidney tubules into the pertitubular capillaries Facilitated diffusion
Created by: seshelby62
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