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Biology words D-L

Biology words for every biology student

DIFFUSION the natural movement of molecules or particles from regions of higher to regions of lower concentrations in order to spread out and become evently mixed
DNA an example of a nucleic acid formed of smaller molecules called nucleotides. The sequence of nitrogen bases act as a genetic code to form traits from proteins
DOUBLE HELIX the name given to DNA's structure. It is two linear strands held together with chemical bonds that become twisted into a 3D spiral similar to the shape of a railing on a spiral staircase.. This model was first developed by James Watson and Francis Crick
DOMINANT in genetics, an allele or a gene that is expressed in an organism's phenotype...this allele masks the effect of the recessive allele or gene when present. the allele shows, even if the individual only has one copy of the allele.
ELEMENT simplest substance that cannot be broken cown by chemical mens and is made up of the same kind of atoms all with indentical number of protons
ENZYME proteins that act as catalysts to increase the rate of chemical reactions w/o being consumed or permanently altered themselves. They have an active site that fits into the substance(substrate) being acted on
EUKARYOTE cell with a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and whose DNA is found in chromosomes. These cells also contain specialized membrane-bbound organelles. Plants, Animals, Fungi, and Protist are eukaryotic organisms
ECOSYSTEM a system that includes all organisms (biotic factors) in an area as well as its physical environment(abiotic factors) functioning as a unit
FERTILIZATION in sexual reproduction, a process where the union of male( sperm) and female ( ovum/egg) gametes initiate the development of a new organism... The gametes each with a single set of chromosomes fuse to form a zygote with a complete set of chromosomes
GENE a segment of DNA ( specific sequence of bases) on a specific site on a chromosome that is responsible for the physical and inheritable characteristics of the organism...Genes encode instructions on how to make proteins
GAMETE also called sex cells, two types male gamete(sperm) is a smaller mobile cell that meets up with the much larger and less mobile female gamete( egg, ova).. gametes are made by meiosis and carry half of the chromosomes of the organism
GENOTYPE genetic makeup of organisms or set of genes ( alleles) that is responsible for a particular trait( the phenotypes)...It consists of a pair of alleles for each trait represented using letters such as FF, Ff, or ff
HOMEOSTASIS A characteristic of life described as the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes... from greek words meaning "similar" and "stable"
HYPOTHESIS a tentative explanation for an observation or scientific problem that can and should be tested. Usually written as "If ....(I do this),,,,, then(this) will happen".. greek words mean "below" " theory"
HYPOTONIC a solution with LESS solutes than another solution to which it is compared. A cell in a _____ solution would cause the water to diffuse into the cell
HYPERTONIC A solution with a HIGHER concentration of solutes ( dissolved substances)than some other specified solution. When a cell is bathed in a hypertonic solution the water will be drawn out of the cell
HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOME chromosome pairs ( one from each parent) that are similar in length, gene position and centromere location.. The position of genes on each homologous chromsome is the same , however the genes may contain different alleles..or not FF, Ff, or ff
HETEROZYGOUS in genetics, a pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive ( they are different).. Ff
HOMOZYGOUS in genetics, a pair of genes that are the same.. both dominant FF or both recessive ff ( also called pure or true- breeding)
HYBRID heterozygous .. usually referring to offspring of two ( true or pure breeding) homozygous individuals differing in traits of interest ... FF x ff produces offspring that are Ff
ISOTONIC solution with SAME concentration of solutes as another solution with which it is compared.. This allows for the free movement of water across the membrane w/o changing the concentration of solutes on either side
INTERPHASE longest stage of cell cycle ... This stage follows mitosis or meiosis when nucleus is not dividing.. In cells that will undergo further division the DNA in the nucleus is duplicated and cell is going and doing normal processes
LIPID macromolecules made of C,H, O...but not like carbohydrates... Made of fatty acids and other component. Examples are Fats, Waxes, Oils, and Phospholipids. They are insoluble in water and important in cell membranes , energy storage, insulation and more
Created by: shemehl