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Cell Structure

Chapter 5

Phospholipid Bilayer The framework of the membrane
What is the phospholipid bilayer made up of? The tail (hydrophobic) and head (hyrophillic)
Transmembrane proteins Have one or more regions physically embedded in the hydrophoic region of the bilayer
Lipid-anchored protein Involoves covalent attachment of a lipid to the amino acid side chain of a protein
Peripheral or Extrinsic Membrane Proteins Noncovalently bound to regions of intergral membrane proteins that project out from the membrane, or they are bound to the polar head groups of phospholipids
What percent of genes encode membrane proteins? 25%
Fluidity Individual molecules remain in close association, yet have the ability to readily move within the membrane
Semifliud Most lipids can rotate freely around their long axes and move laterally within the membrane leaflet
Flippase requires ATP to transport lipids from one leaflet to another
What affects fluidity? Length of fatty acyl tails and presence of double bonds in the acyl tails
What does cholesterol do to the phospholipids? Tends to stabilize (insulate) membranes
Glycolipid Carbohydrate to lipid
Glycoprotein Carbohydrate to protein
Cell coat (aka glycocalyx) carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface shielding cell from damage
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Biological sample that is sectioned and stained with heavy-metal dyes
Freeze Fracture Electron Microscopy (FFEM) Can be used to analyze the interiors of phospholipid bilayers; sample is frozen in liquid nitrogen and fractured with a knife
Glycosylation Attachment of carbs to a lipid or protein
N-link Attachment of carb 'tree' to nitrogen atom of asparagine side chain
O-linked Occurs only in Golgi, addition of sugar strings to O2 atom in serine or threonine side chains
Membrane transport does what? Ensures essential molecules enter a cell, metabolic intermediates remain, and waster products exit the cell
Passive Transport Does not require an input of energy and molecules move down gradient with gradient
Passive Diffusion Diffusion of a solute through a membrane without transport protein
Facilitated Diffusion Diffusion of a solute through a membrane with the aid of transport protein
Active transport Requires energy and moves molecules up the gradient
Phospholipid Bilayer Barrier Barrier to hydrophillic molecules and ions due to hydrophobic interior
Homeostasis Living cells maintain a relatively constant internal environment different from their external environment.
Transmembrane Gradient Concentration of a solute is higher on one side of a membrane than on the other
Ion Electronchemical Gradient Both electrical gradients and concentration gradients are present
Osmosis Diffusion of water across a membrane from area with more water (less solute) to and area with less water(more solute)
Osmotic Pressure The tendency for water to move into any cell
Crenation Shrinking in a hypertonic solution (turning into a raisin)
Lyse Too much water moves into a cell causing it to burst
Turgor Pressure Water pressure inside plant cells that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall
Transport Proteins Transmembrane proteins provide a passageway for the movement of ions and hydrophillic molecules across membranes
Channels Form an open passageway for the direct diffusion of ions or molecules across the membrane
Aquaporins Channels for water
Transporters Aka Carrier proteins that perform a conformational (shape) change to transport solute
Uniporter Single molecule or ion
Symporter/Contransporter Two or more ions or molecules transported in the same direction
Antiporter Two or more ions of molecules transported in opposite directions
Primary active transport Uses a pump and directly uses energy (ATP) to transport solute
Secondary Active Transport Use a pre-existing concentration gradient to drive transport of solute
Exosytosis Material inside the cell is packaged into vesicles and excreted into the extracellular medium
Endocytosis Plasma membrane folds inward to form a vesicle that brings substances into the cell
Receptor-mediated endocytosis Entry of large particles that requires recognition by a cell membran receptor
Pinocytosis Cell drinking
Phagocytosis Cell eating
Created by: ERD2015