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Chapter 6


Prosthetic Group Permanently attached to the enzyme
Cofactor Inorganic ion that temporarily bind
Co-Enzyme Organic molecule that participates in reaction but left unchanged afterwards
Catabolic Metabolism Breakdown and produce heat
Anabolic Metabolism Promote synthesis and are endergonic; when bonds are broken energy is released
Two types of ATP Substrate level phosphate and chemiosmosis
Substrate level phosphate Enzymes directly transfers phosphates from one molecule to another
Chemiosmosis Energy stored in an electrochemical gradient is used to make ATP from ADP and P1
Oxidation Removal of electrons
Reduction Addition of electrons
Redox Reaction Electron removed from one molecule and added to another
Gene Regulation Genes are turned on and off
Cellular Regulation Deteremined by cell signaling pathways like horomones
Biochemical Regulation Breakdown surplus
Exonucleases Enzymes that cleave off nucleotide from end of an RNA molecule
Exosome Multiprotein
How many ATP is yielded from glysolysis and Krebs cycle? Two
Anaerobic Metabolism For environments that lack oxygen or during oxygen deficits
What are the two anaerobic stages? Uses substance other than oxygen as a final electron transport chain Produce ATP only via substrate-level phosphorylation
Primary Metabolism Involves reactions that are essential for all structure and function
Secondary Metabolism Synthesis of secondary metabolic that aren't necessary for cell structure
Phenolics antioxidants with intense flavors and smells used to protect against UV, promote pollenation, and strengthens cell walls
Alkaloids Caffine, nicotine, morphine; bitter tasting, basic pH
Terpenoids Cinnamon, mint; intense smells and colors
Polyketides Antibiotics
Types of Processes in a Reaction Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain
Cyanide Halts cellular respiration by inhibiting the cytochrome c
How many ATP molecules are in a glucose molecule 30-34
ATP Synthase Enzyme harnesses energy as hydrogen protons flow through ATP synthase
Metabolism All of the chemical reactions that take place within an organism
Energy Ability to promote change or do work
Kinetic Energy Associated with movement
Potential Energy Due to structure or location
Chemical energy Energy in molecular bonds
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed; Law of Conservation of Energy; can be transformed from one type to another
Second Law of Thermodynamics Transfer or transformation of energy from one form to another increases entropy or degree of disorder of a system
Total Energy Usuable energy+ unusable energy
The more entropy something has..... The more disordered it is
Entropy A measure of the disorder that cannot be harnessed to do work
Exergonic Released energy
Endergonic Requires energy (energy taken in)
Catalyst Agent that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed during the reaction
Enzymes Protein catalyst in living cells
Ribozymes RNA molecules with catalytic properties
Activation Energy Initial input of energy needed to start a reaction
How do you overcome activation energy? Large amounts of heat or using enzymes to lower activation energy
How can you lower activation energy? Strain bonds in reactants to make it easier to achieve transition state, position reactants together to facilitate bonding, or change the environment
Active Site Location where reaction takes place
Substrate Reactants that bind to active site
Enzyme-substrate complex formed when enzyme and substrate bind
Created by: ERD2015