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Chapter 15C

Special Senses

QuestionAnswer
What are the two chemical senses that are complentary sense that lets one know weather a substance should be savored or avoided Smell ( olfaction) and taste (gustation)
What type of receptors are used in these two chemical senses Chemoreceptors
What must be dissolved in a aqueous solution to be picked up in chemoreceptors ? Chemicals
What are excited by chemicals dissolved in nasal fluids ? Smell receptors
What responds to chemicals dissolved in salvia ? Taste receptors
an organ of smell,that is located in the roof of nasal cavity and covers the superior nasal conchea is known as the Olfactory Epithelium
Bipolar neurons with radiating olfactory cilia is known as Olfactory sensory neurons
What surrounds and cushions olfactory receptor cells ? Supporting Cells
What lies at the base of the epithelium ? Olfactory Stem Cells
What are long,largely nonmotile cilia,that radiates from knob and is covered by mucus (solvant or odarants) Olfactory cilia
What has stem cells that give rise to to new neurons every 30-60 days ? Olfactory neurons
How many different odorants does smell may contain ? 100's of smell
How may "smell" genes does humans have active in nose 400
Protein responds to how many odors in smell ? one or more odor
Each odor binds to how many different types of receptor Several
Each gene ______ a unique receptor protein Encodes
The ______ _______ contain pain and tempature receptors that responds to irritants such as sharpness of amonia, or can "smell" hot or cold ( chilli peppers,menthol) Nasal Cavity
In order to smell a substance it must be _______,ad must be a gaseous state. Volatile
Odorants bind to receptors, activating a protein known as G protein
G protein activation causes _______ (second messenger) synthethesis cAMP
what causes a decreased reponse to sustained stimulus,referred to as olfactory adaption Ca^2+ influx
sensory organs for taste is known as Taste buds
The peglike projection of the toungue mucosa, that accounts for most of 10,000 taste buds that are located on the toungue is kown as papillae
What are the tops of these mushroom-shaped structures that houses most taste buds,scattered across the toungue known as Fungiform papillae
What are the structures on the side of the toungue known as Foliate papillae
the largest taste buds with 8-12 forming "V" at the back of the toungue is known as Vallate Papillae
Each taste bud consist of 50-100 flask-shaped epithelial cells, what are the two types of taste receptor cells called Gustatory epithelial cells and basal epithelial cells
taste receptors cells that have microvilli called gustatory hairs that projects into taste pores,bathed in saliva is known as Gustatory epithelial cells
What do sensory dendrites do ? sends taste signals to brain
Dynamic stem cells that divide every 7-10 days are known as ? Basal epithelial cells
What are the five basic taste sensations ? 1.Sweet 2.Sour 3.Salty 4.Bitter 5.Umami
The basic taste sensation that accounts for taste of sugars,saccharin,alcohol, amino acids, and leads some salt Sweet Taste
The basic taste sensation that accounts for hydrogen ions in a solution Sour Taste
The basic sensation that accounts for metal ions (inorganic salts);sodium chloride tastes saltiest Salty Taste
The basic sensation taste that accounts for alkaloids such as quinne and nicotine,caffeine,and non-alkaloids such as aspirin Bitter Taste
The basic taste sensation that accouts for amino acids glutamate and asparate. Umami Taste
What are the three major areas of the ears and their function ? External: Hearing Only Middle : Hearing Only Internal: Hearing and Equilibrium
what is the outer layer of the ear called and what two parts does it consist of ? The External ear, and consist of the external acoustic meatus and tympanic membrane
a structure of the external ear that is a shell-shaped structure surrouding the ear canal that functions to funnel sound waves in auditory canal is known as the ? Auricle (pinna)
a structure in the external ear that is a cartilaginous rim of the ear is known as the Helix
a structure in the external ear that is known as the fleshy ear lobe is the ? Louble
The part of the external ear that is also known as the (auditory canal) and is a short,curved tube lined with the skin bearing hairs,sebacous glands and cercumious earwax glands, and also transmits sound waves to ear drum is known as the External aucostic meatus
also known as the (ear drum) What is the part of external ear that forms a boundary between external and middle ear, and vibrates in response to sound and transfers sound energy to bones of middle ear called ? Tympanic membrane
The area of the ear that is also known as the tympanic cavity and is a small,air-filled,mucosa lined cavity in the temporal lobe and is flanked laterally by a boy wall of the eardrum contaiing oral ad round membrane windows is called the ? The Middle ear
The superior portion of the middle ear is known as the Epitympanic recess
The canal for communication with mastoid air cells in the mastoid process of the middle ear is known as the ? Mastoid antrum
What structure of the middle ear connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx and is formly called the eustachian tube, and is usually a flattened tube called ? pharynogotympanic tube
the three small bones in the tympanic cavity of the middle ,are called Auditory ossicles
The hammer is secured to the ear drum is known as the ? Malleus
The anvil is known as the Incus
The stirrup base fits into the oval window is known as the Stapes
The malleus articulates with the what ? Incus
The incus articulates with the what ? Stapes
What two muscles contract reflexively in response to loud sounds to prevent damage to hearing receptors ? Tensor tympani and stapedius
The area of the ear that is also called the labyrinth (maze) because of its complicated shape, ad it lies deep in the temporal bone behind the eye socket and provides a secure site for all of the delicate receptor machinery is known as the The Internal Ear
The two major divisons of the internal ear are called the ? Bony labyrith and membraous labyrith
The system of tortous channels and cavities that is divided in three regions vestibule,semicircular canals, conchela, is filled with perilymph fluid similar to csf is known as the Bony labyrith
The series of membranous sacs ad ducts contaied in bony labyrith, that is filled with potassium-rich endolymph is known as the ? membranous labyrith
The central egg shaped cavity of the bony labyrinth that contains two membranous sacs,saccule and uricle, and its sacs have equilibrium receptor regions (macuae) that responds to gravity and changes in position of head is known as the Vestibule
the structure of the bony labyrith that has three canals oriented in three planes of space, anterior,lateral and posterior is known as the Semicircular canals
anterior and posterior planes of the semicircular canals are at right angles
The lateral plane of the semicircular canals lies horizontally
enlarged areas of ducts of each canal that houses equlibrium receptor regions called the cristia ampullaris, receptors that respond to angular movements of the head is known as Ampulla
A small spirial,conchialbony chamber that extends from the vestibule and coils around the bony pillar ad contains cochlear duct,which houses the spiral organ and ends at the cochlear apex is known as the Cochlea
The conchela is divided into three chambers 1.Scala Vestibule 2.Scala Media 3.Scala tympani
abuts oval window,contains perilymph is known as the Scala Vestibule
(cochlear duct) cotains endolymph is known as the Scale Media
terminates at round window,contains perilymph is known as the Scale tympani
"roof" of the cochlear duct that seperates scale media from scala vestible is known as the vestibular membrane
External wall of cochlear duct composed of mucosa that secretes endolymph, is known as the stria vascularis
the floor of the cochlear duct is compsed of what ? bony spiral lamina
What supports the spiral organ ? Basilar membrane
what pathway of the brain information goes up to relax centers in brain stem and allows fast,reflective responses to imbalance so one does not fall down Called Equilibrium Pathway
Impulses from activated _______ _______ travel to either _______ _____ in brain stem or to cerebellum. Vestibular receptors, travels to vestibular nuclei
What are the three modes of input for balance ? 1. Vestibular receptors 2.Visual receptors 3.Somatic receptors
a labyrith disorder that affects the cochelea and semicircular canals,causes vertigo,nausea,and vomitting.' Treatment:anti-motion sickness drugs ,this syndrome is called ? Meinere's syndrome
Created by: jennysevere24