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Chapter 15A

Special Senses

QuestionAnswer
What are the five senses of the body ? 1.Vision 2.Taste 3.Smell 4.Hearing 5.Equilibrum
Special sensory receptors are? Distant receptor cells localized in head region
70% of the body'sensory receptors are in the ? Eyes
Half of the _______ _________ is involved in the visual processing. Cerebral cortex
The eye is a small sphere that is protected by ? fat cushion and bony orbit
The eyes consist of what accessory structures that protects the eye and aids in eye function ? 1.Eyebrows 2.Eyelids 3.Conjunctivia 4.Lacrimal appartus 5.Extrinsic eye muscles
What is the accessory that: Overlies supraoribital margin, and functions in shading the eye from sunlight and preventing perspiration from reaching eye Eyebrows
What is the accessory that is also known as Palpebrae, that is a thin,skin-covered fold that protects the eye anteriorly and is seprated by palpebral fissure ? Eyelid
What is the lacrimal carnucle in the eyelids,and where is it located ? It a structure in the eyelid accessory and contains seabacous oil glands and sweat glands,It islocated at the medial commisure
Tarsal plates in the eyebrows support what ? connective tissue for folds,and anchors orbicularis oculi ad levator palebrae superioris muscles
How many seconds does the eyelids blink reflexively ? Every 3-7 Seconds
Follicles of hair that are innervated, and have nerve endings that initiate reflex blinking,and has lubricating glands associated with eyelids ? Eyelashes
A modified sebaceous gland that produces oily secretion that lubricates lid and eye is known as Tarsal (Meibomian) glands
A transparet mucous membrane that produces a lubricating mucous secreation is known as ? Conjunctiva
Palpebral conjunctiva does what ? lines the underside of eyelids
Bulbar conjuctiva does what ? covers the whites of the eyes
What accessory structure consists of lacrimal gland and ducts that drain into the nasal cavity ? Lacrimal apparatus
A dilute saline solution containing mucus,antibodies,and antibacterial lysozyme is known as ? Lacrimal secreation also know as (Tears)
Blinking spreads tears towards what ? Medial commisure,and enters through lacrimal canculi via lacrimal puncta
How many extrinsic eye muscles are there ? 6
Extrinsic eye muscles originates from ? the bony orbit of the eye and inserts on eyeball
What accessory srtucture allows the eye to follow moving objects,maintain shape of eyeball and hold it in orbit ? Extrinsic eye muscles
A infected tarsal gland results in an unsighty cyst called ? Chalazion
Inflammation of smaller seabacous glands are called what ? A sty
An inflammation of the cojuctivia resulting in reddeded,irritated eyes is known as? Conjuctivitis
Diplopia occurs when ? Movements of external muscles of two eyes are not perfectly coordinated and results in double vision
Strabisum occurs when ? Cogenital weakess of external eye muscles rotate medially or laterally,results in cross-eye
What are the three layers of the eyeballs ? 1.Fibrous layer 2.Vascular layer 3.Inner(retina) layer
What fluids are the internal cavities filled with in the eyeballs,and what does this fluid fuction in ? Humors,helps maintain shape
What is the fibrous layer and what does it compose of ? Outermost coat of the eyeballs, It is compose of dense avascular connective tissue
What are the two regions of the fibrous layer ? The Sclera and Cornea
What is the sclera and what does it form ? the posterior portion and bulk of fibrous layer in the eyeball,and is glisting white and opaque
The "white of the eye" that is continuous with dura matter and protects and shape the eyeball and provides anchoring sites for extrinsic eye muscles is known as the ? Sclera
The region of the fibrous layer that is crystal clear and bulges anteriorly from its junction with sclera and forms a clear window that lets light enter and bends light as it enters the eye is known as the ? Cornea
The inner layer of the cornea contains what ? sodium pumps that helps maintain clarity of corea
The layer of the eyeball that forms the middle coat,and is also known as uvea, consist of these three regions : 1.Choroid 2.Cilliary Body 3.Iris The vascular Layer
A blood vessel-rich dark brow membrane that forms the 5/6 of vascular layer and has blood vessels that nourishes all eye layers is known as the ? Choroid
Brown pigments of the choroid produce what ? Melanocytes, which helps absorbs light preventing it from scattering and reflecting within the eye, which would cause confusio.
A thickened ring of tissue surrounding lens,ad consists of smooth muscle bundles,cilliary muscles, that controls the shape of lens is known as the ? Cilliary Body
The colored part of the eye that lies between the cornea and lens,continous with the cilliary body is known as the ? Iris
The central opening that regulates the amount of light entering the eye is known as the ? Pupils
What cause sphicter pupillae (circular muscle) to contracts and pupils to constrict; Parasympathetic control Close vision and bright light
What causes dilator papillae (radial muscle) to contract and pupils to dilate; sympathetic control Distant vision and dim light
Changes in emotinal state causes the pupils to do what when subjects matter is appearing or requires promblem-solvig skills ? Causes pupils to dialate
The layer of the eyeball that develops from an extension of the brain and contains millions of photoreceptor cells that transduce light energy and consists of neurons and glial cells is known as the Inner layer (Retina)
What two layers is the retina consisted of ? Outer pigment layer and Inner nueral layer
A single-cell-thick layer lining next to the choroid that stores vitamin A,and absorbs light and prevent its scattering is known as The outer pigment layer of the retina
A transparent layer that runs anteriorly to margin of the cilliary body and has serrated edges called ora serrata is known as the ? The neural layer of the retina
The neural layer is composed of three types of neurons , What are they ? 1.Photoreceptors 2.Ganglion Cells 3. Bipolar Cells
Signals spread from the photoreceptors to the _____ cells and to the ____ cells. bipolar cells and to the ganglion cells
What do the ganglion cell axon exit eye as ? it exits the eye as the optic nerve
The site where the optic nerve leaves the eyes, and lacks photoreceptors,so is reffered to as the blind spot is known as the _____ ? The optic disc
How many photoreceptors does the retina has, and what are one of the two types a quater billion, rods and cones
the most numerous ad sensitive to light and is a peripheral vision receptor for dim light is known as Rods
a vision receptor for bright light and provides high-resolution color vision is known as Cones
Contains mostly cones and is in the posterior pole lateral to blind spot ? Macula lutea
region with best visulal acucity and lies in the center of macula lutea and contains all cones is known as the ? Fovea centralis
What two segments does the cilliary zonule seperates the eye into ? Posterior and Anterior segmets of internal chambers and fluids
Posterior segments contains Viterous humor, a fluid that transmit light,supports posterior surface of lens; and forms in the embryo that last whole lifetime
Anterior segments contains Aqueous humor, a plasma like fluids continuously formed by capillaries of cilliary processes, supplies nutrients and oxygen mainly to lens and cornea but also to retina,and removes waste.
A condition in which drainage of aqueous humor is blocked,causing fluid to back up and increase pressure within eye is known as Glaucoma
a biconvex,transparent ,flexible,and avascular structure that changes shape to precisely focus light on retina Lens
Created by: jennysevere24