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REHS Chemistry

Study guide-class highlights in periodic table, water, hazmat, pools

Sodium, Potassium, Lithium have these in common and this Periodic Table grouping. In pure form, the elements spontaneously ignite in moist air, one in heated, dry air too; w/moderate-high explosive potential;All are 'Alkaline Metals'.(Barium+Strontium dust 'Alkaline Earth'+Zinc foil/dust'Transitional Metal'can also ignite spontaneously
Radioactive isotopes of these elements are used in medical tracer studies. Potassium, Sodium, Barium
Name the disease caused by inhalation of metallic dust/fume particles. What particular disease names are associated with 1.Barium, 2.Beryllium and 3.Iron respectively? Pneumonitis=inflammation of the lungs; Baritosis occurs from metal #1; Cyanosis(blue discoloration of skin/mucous membrane from lack of oxygen)also occurs with metal #2; Siderosis if Metal #3.
Name two uses for radioactive cobalt. This element is 1. used as a cancer treatment in medicine; and, 2. an irradiation tool in cold pasteurization
What are the hazards of radioactive strontium (Sr89 and Sr90) and what is historical significance? "boneseeking"-collects in the bones; heavy/drops to ground, stays in grass and ends up in milk; occurred in areas around Chernobyl and Hiroshima/Nagasaki.
What happens when copper piping is used for soda machine lines? Soda water(carbonic acid)in lines reacts with this metal, solutionizes it to high levels; causes chemical food poisoning w/i 1-2 hrs.Symptoms: Nausea, headache, vomiting. Lines now plastic.
Name the organic-metal compound used in plastics stabilizing and toxicity affects the liver, kidneys, lungs and central nervous system. What is the name of the condition? Organotins (Tin)affects these organs; Stanosis
This element is used in plating & soldering, to coat copper pans & wire, line lead pipe for distilled water, beer, carbonated drinks, cans Tin (St=stannum)
Industrial waste in copper & lead smelters (alloy additive), this element is a known carcinogen/teratogen; causes dermatitis, highly toxic by ingestion or inhalation; OSHA employee exposure standard is 10 micrograms per cubic meter air. Characteristics of Arsenic
Soluble compounds of this element are highly toxic but a strong emetic, reducing hazard by ingestion; used to control nuclear fission reactions in atomic energy; poisoning causes kidney & testes necrosis, vomiting/diarrhea/cramps; pnuemonitis/emphysema Characteristics of Cadmium
This element resists corrosion; poor electrical conductor; non-combustible; good sound & vibration absorber; relatively impenetrable to radiation; a cumulative poison when ingested or dust/fumes inhaled. Characteristics of Lead
What is the tolerance limit for lead dust and fumes in air, the EPA standard for Lead in ambient air, FDA limit for lead in foods, and in house paints? Tolerance of 0.15 mg per cubic meter air; 1.5 micrograms (0.0015 mg) per cu.meter in ambient air; 0% in foods; 0.05% in house coatings.
Exposure to this element has caused spastic and psychological symptoms; improves hardness & corrosion resistance in alloys/welding applications. Manganese
This element exists in lumps/granules/ powder, in carbon-iron complex, or pure crystals; exists in active & passive states(valences); in highest valence or acid causes skin/tissue ulcers, affects nasal septum; bronchogenic (bronchus/bronchiole carcinoma) Characteristics of Chromium
This poisoning occurs most in children under age 7 -high danger under age 2; main routes respiratory & oral/ingest from old housing/dirt/dust-not thru skin; cumulatively collects in bone/teeth most, also brain+organs;affects red blood cells,esp.if anemic. Characteristics of Lead poisoning
This condition can bring on seizures, incoordination, bizarre behavior, coma and death from high levels of the element in blood. Symptoms of Lead Encephalopathy
What is prevalence (%) lead (Pb)in adults v. children;the max daily limits in adult v child;avg urban blood conc. in adults & action levels in child; how treated? Found in 0-3% adults/5-25% children; Max. 500 v. 100-300 ug/dl/day; avg blood levels 5-10ug/dl adult;Child levels:monitor @ 10-15, subclinical 20-35 ug/dl;mod/high tox @>35ug/dl-start EDTA Chelation
When was lad paint banned in interior/ext. house paint? What tool is used to assess on-site lead conc in paint? Banned in 1972; X-ray Fluorescence Refractor (XFR)
Metallic form highly toxic via skin & heated-fume/vapor inhaling; all inorg. & most org cmpds highly tox, inclu ingestion;tolerance=0.05mg/cu.meter air;bacteria in H2O converts inorg to methyl_;Liquid aka quicksilver Characteristics of Mercury (Hg, hydrgyrum)
Poisoning hazards from overexposure include gastrointestinal impairmt, inflamed mouth & gums, central nervous symptom tremors, psychological symptoms, mental retardation in children Symptoms of Mercury poisoning
This element destroys the natural bacterial flora in sewage wastewater treatment process, so very important to notify treatment plant of releases. Mercury spills.
This caused 1.severe birth defects in 1950's in Minamata, Japan, and caused 2.'Mad Hatter's Disease" in Europe. 1. historical result of consumption of mercury-contaminated fish from industrially polluted bay; 2. disease from historical use of Hg in "felt" (and fur)product manufacturing.
Class of magnesium-silicate minerals, inclu. chrysotile (Serpentine type), amosite, anthophyllite & actinolite (Amphibole type), used in bldg materials- insulation, roof/floor/ceiling tiles; brake linings;fire-resist clothes; from 1920-late 1970's. Derivation & uses of asbestos; date range of extensive use of asbestos
3 conditions caused by chronic inhalation &/or ingestion of Asbestos fibers (first si abestosis-what is it?); OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit-Time-weighted Avg (PEL-TWA) 1. Scarring of the lungs from inhalation of these fibers, 2.Lung Cancer, 3. Mesothelioma: cancer caused when fibers penetrate lung or intestinal tract,lodges in mesothelium, the lining of body cavities & organs; 0.2 fibers/cc of >5 u (microns) in length
Acute hazards:Eye & repiratory irritant,headache,convulsions, throat edema; Chronic:Central nervous system-mental depression,nervous,weakness,>perspiration;garlic odor/taste;gastrointestinal,kidney,liver disorder;has photo-voltaic properties Characterisitics of Selenium/Selenium poisoning (Note; Most forms of selenium have low toxicity)
sed as meat preserver contra botulism;aka 'malicious food additive'-possible stomach carcinogen,causes Blue Baby Syndrome-gives off colorful metallic sheen;found in fertilizer,sewage;pollutant in runoff Uses & Characteristics of Nitrates & nitrate poisoning
Group of organic compounds with straight or branched chains; 3 subgroups: 1. saturated & <reactive,2.unsaturated (dbl bonds)& >reactive, can be asphixiants/anesthetics), 3. have a triple bond, highly reactive Characteristics of Aliphatics: 1.Alkanes (Parrafins)(branched chains make better gasoline), 2.Alkenes & alkadienes (Olefins), 3. Alkynes (Acetylenes)
Group of cyclic (rings), unsaturated hydrocarbons that give off a strong odor. Give a common example. What are the hazards? Aromatics; Benzene (also Toluene);Acute=respiratory & skin irritation; Chronic: known carcinogen,central nervous system depression.
Halogenated aromatics usually contain which halogens? What are sources and hazards? Name the ight oil used to cool transformers. These incorporate usually Chlorine (Cl) or Bromine (Br), used in pesticides, as solvents/degreasers, and power/utiliy equipment; PCB (Polychlorobiphenyls); Acute: hepatoxin, skin & eye irritant; low chronic toxicity.
Common exposure route=inhalation;acute hazards=visual disturbance/dbl vision,fatigue,Degreaser's Flush on face/arms(alcohol-related), Anesthetic effects @500-1000 ppm w/kidney+liver damage, heart arrhythmia;Chronic=CNS depression; No skin absorption Characteristics of TCE (Trichloroethylene), a halogenated, aliphatic hydrocarbon
What are phenolics? What are the hazards? Any of several types of synthetic, thermosetting resins (glues), obtained by condensation of the main chemical type with aldehydes, typically formaldehyde; Strong irritants,cyanotic (interrupts O2 intake causing blue-color), kidney & liver
What are some sources of organophosphates? What are the hazards? Pesticides: Malathion, parathion, fenthion, diazinon; fertilizers; interfere with acetylcholinesterase enzyme, causes abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, contracted pupils; Antidote is Vitamin K
Colorless liquid or gas,w/sharp,irritating odor;lighter than air;easily liquifies w/pressure;spray bottle w/low conc+water used to I.D. Cl leak-turns from clear to milky;in fertilizers; mixed w/bleach-forms low-grade phosgene gas;Saturn rings;refrigerant Characteristics of Ammonia (NH3) (Note:forms explosive compounds in contact w/silver or mercury)
Colorless gas or liquid,<>odorless;formed by icomplete comustion of fossil fuel/organics in limited O2, major air pollutant from automobiles,house contam. from gas water heater-improper burning/venting; >> flammable/explosive;flam limits in air-35ppm U.S. Characteristics of Carbon Monoxide (CO)
What are the symptoms of Carbon Monoxide poisoning? Highly toxic by inhalation; Acute: has >200x's more affinity for blood hemoglobin than O2-forms carboxyhemoglobin in body, headache,dizziness,fatigue,psychomotor impairment,death in 2 hrs-causes rosy-red cheeks; Chronic: arteriosclerosis,heart damage
Transparent amber liquid,very irritating odor;or dense yellow-green gas, heavier than air (3.21 g/l v. 1.29 g/l=air,don't drop to ground in release);very strong oxidizing agent;tolerance <1 ppm in air start seeing dangerous effects. Characteristics of Chlorine (Cl)
What are the hazards associated with Clorine exposure? Toxic as tissue/skin irritant & by inhalation, dangerous in contact with reducing agents such as turpentine,ether, ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrogen & powdered metals.
Colorless gas, very bad odor of rotten eggs,produced by petrol oil to gasoline "cracking" process;natural waste prod. of anaerobic decomp;bi-product of natural gas safety odorant-Mercaptan. Characterisitics of Hydrogen Sulfide.
What are the hazards of Hydrogen sulfide? Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant to eyes/mucous membranes,affects olfactory nerves/sense of smell; very highly flammable, explosive limit in air 4.3-4.6%
Gas w/pungent odor,aka oxymethylene; polymerizes easily, commercially offered in 37-50% aqueous solution w/up to 15% methanol-inhibits polymerization;Tolerance=2ppm in air,toxic by inhalation;strong skin irritant;explosive limit 7-73%;uses: resins,embalm. Characteristics of Formaldehyde
Derived from natural gas, anaerobic decay of manures,agricultural wastes, organic matter in swamps, wastewater treatment and sanitary landfills; no color/odor/taste; severe fire & explosive hazard;explosive limit 5-15% by volume in air. Characteristics of Methane
Common term for oxides of nitrogen, NO, NO2 & NO3; from combustion of fossil fuels & occur naturally from what compounds in the atmosphere? What are hazards? NOx; NH3 or N2 and O2; Irritant, can cause pulmonary edema & death.
What is a catalyst? In a catalytic converter,extreme heat (300F) and catalyzing noble metals convert unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide & NOx from auto emissions into what? An agent that assists &/or accelerates a process of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the reaction. Harmless carbon dioxide & nitrogen gases and water vapor result from this process.
What is the chemical composition & characteristics of ozone? How is it created? O3; slightly pungent gas; created naturally by lightening, artificially by photo-chemical smog; 0.1-1ppm causes shortness of breath,headaches,irritation,cough; >1ppm breathing may be seriously impaired; high in atmos-blocks UV rays;depleted by CFCs
How is acid rain formed? What is source of Sulfur oxides in atmosphere? SOx (SO/SO2)+ O2 in air = SO3; SO3 + H2O in air + H2SO4 (Sulfuric Acid); clings to particles/droplets and falls with precipitation.
Created by: Hasti44