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Biology-Unit3

Biology Unit 3 - Prokaryotes

TermDefinition
cyanobacteria bacteria that can carry out photosynthesis
endosymbiosis a mutually beneficial relationship in which one organism lives within another
obligate anaerobe prokaryote that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen
obligate aerobe prokaryote that cannot survive without the presence of oxygen
facultative aerobe an organism that can live with or without oxygen
plasmid a genetic structure that can replicate independently of the main chromosome(s) of a cell; usually a circular DNA molecule in bacteria
flagellum a long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move
conjugation in prokaryotes a type of sexual reproduction in which two cells join temporarily to recombine nuclear material (DNA)
endospore a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions
asexual reproduction reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
binary fission a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
cell membrane double-layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
fluid mosaic model model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
selectively permeability condition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross a barrier or membrane
receptor protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
passive transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
diffusion the movement of particles from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
concentration gradient a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
osmosis the diffusion of water from areas of high water concentration to areas of low water concentration through a membrane that is permeable to water
isotonic solution that has an equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
hypertonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
hypotonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower that the solute concentration inside a cell
facilitated diffusion the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
active transport the movement of chemical substances, usually across a cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
endocytosis the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
exocytosis the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance tot he cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
Created by: lpgullett