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Reproductive system functions? produces, nurtures, transports ova and sperm, secrets hormones. contains primary and secondary reproductive organs
Female gonads? ovaries
Male gonads? testes or testicles
Gonads perform 2 functions? secrete hormones, produce the gametes
The Gametes? the ova egg and the sperm
Male reproductive system? produce, nourish, transport sperm. Deposit sperm within the female reproductive tract, secrets hormones
Testes functions? produce sperm, secrete male hormone testosterone
Scrotum? a sac that hangs loosely between the legs and contains testes
Cryptorchidism? failure of testes to descend into the scrotum result in sterility. Lower temperature s/b <3 degrees less from 98.7 normal body temp
Lobules? testis are divided into 250 smaller units called lobules
Seminiferous tubules? produce sperm. located insight lobules
Interstitial cells? produces androgens = testosterone
Spermatogenesis? formation of sperm
Spermatogonia? the undifferentiated spermatogenic cells
How many chromosomes in each spermatogonium? 46 chromosomes, the normal number of chromosomes
Meiosis male? divides spermatocytes. reduces the number of chromosomes by half, from 46 to 23
Three parts of mature sperm? head, body, tail
Head? primarily a nucleus
Acrosome? contains enzymes for fertilization
Body? midpiece, spiral-shaped structure contains mitochondria(ATP) and supplies the sperm with energy for "big swim"
The tail? flagellum, enables sperm to swim. most sperm live only hours, but harder once can live up to 3 days
Genital Ducts Pathway? sperm mature and gather nutrients, volume moving from testes to urethra. Epididymis (2); Vas deferens (2), Ejaculatory ducts (2), urethra (1)
The epididymis? sperm mature in there, first part of duct system, 20 feet (6m) long, the walls contract and push the sperm into the next structure, the vas deferens
Vas deferens? continues with epididymis. it ascends as part of the spermatic cord through the inguinal canal in the groin into the pelvic cavity
Two spermatic cords? one coming from the right and one coming from the left
Ejaculatory duct? is created when the seminal vesicle's duct merges with the vas deferens. At this point, these ducts travel through the prostate and, at its end, drain into the collicus seminalis's urethra.
STEVE? ST Seminiferous tubules ** E Epididymis ** V Vas deferens ** E Ejaculatory duct **
Urethra? extends from the base of the urinary bladder to the tip of the penis. Serves 2 organs systems: reproductive & urinary system. Carries urine, semen from the urinary bladder to outside. urethra penetrates to glans penis
The secretions come from three glands? the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands
The seminal vesicles? located at the base of the bladder and secrete a thick yellowish material rich in fructose, vitamin C, prostaglandins. nourish, activate the sperm
Prostate gland? secretes a milky alkaline substance that plays a role in increasing sperm motility. It's a single doughnut-like gland encircles the upper urethra just below the bladder
The bulbourethral glands or Cowper's glands tiny glands that secrete thick mucus into the urethra. The mucus serves as a lubricant during sexual intercourse
Semen? the mixture of sperm and the secretions of the accessory glands. It's a milky, white liquid with alkaline pH. ** Female vagina-acidic; ** male semen-alkaline=Neutralization
The external genitals (genitalia) of the man? consists of scrotum and the penis
The penis? carries urine through urethra and acts as the organ of sexual intercourse (copulation)
Shaft? contains erectile tissue
Glans penis? rounded head of a penis
Foreskin or prepuse? loose skin covering the penis extends downward and forms a cuff of skin around the glands
Smegma? secretion surrounding dead skin cells form a cheesy substance
Phimosis? foreskin is too tight and can't be retracted
Circumcision? the foreskin is surgically removed
Erection? the accumulation of blood in the erectile tissue causes the penis to enlarge
Orgasm? pleasurable sensation that occur at the high of sexual stimulation
Emission? movement of sperm and glandular secretions from the testes and genital ducts into the proximal urethra, where they mix to form sperm. caused by sympathetic nervous system.
Ejaculation? expulsion of semen from the urethra to the outside
UP & DOWN? UP> Erect Parasympathetic ** Down> Flaccid Sympathetic
UP & OUT? UP> Erection Parasympathetic ** OUT> Emission Sympathetic
Androgens? male sex hormones, the most important being testosterone
Testosterone secreted where? by the interstitial cells of the testes and small amount by adrenal cortex
Puberty? the phase of reproductive development
The primary sex characteristics? enlargement and development of the testes and accessory organs of the penis
The secondary sex characteristics? hair growth increases, voice deepens, skin thickens, glandular activity increases, male physique develops
What controls male reproductive system? hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, testes. Hypothalamus (the releasing hormone) stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete FSH and LH (ICSH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone> FSH? stimulates seminiferous tubules to produce sperm. promotes spermatogenesis by stimulating the spermatogenic cells to respond to testosterone. Spermatogenesis comes about through the combined action of FSH and testosterone
Luteinizing hormone LH =interstitial cell-stimulating hormone ICSH. LH=ICSH? stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone
The negative feedback mechanism? maintains constant blood levels of testosterone
The female reproductive system? produces eggs, secretes hormones, nurtures and protects a developing baby during 9 moths of pregnancy
The Ovaries? the female gonads. Two almond-shaped ovaries located on either side of the uterus in the pelvic cavity, are attached by ovarian and broad ligaments. They ovaries are not attached to fallopian tubes, are close to them
Ovarian follicles? within the ovary are many tiny, saclike structures. 2 million follicles. Female produces only 1 egg per month. production stops at menopause at 45-55 y/o
Oocyte? an immature egg insight ovarian follicle
Follicular cells? cells surrounding the oocytes
Meiosis Female? reduces chromosomes from 46 to 23
Graafian follicle? mature ovarian follicle, looks like a blister on the surface of the ovary
Where Fertilization takes place? in the ampula of fallopian tube. implantation in uterus
Two female ovarian hormones? estrogen and progesterone
Ovulation? ejection phase
Fimbriae? finger-like projections at the end of fallopian tubes
Mittelschmerz? pain at the time of ovulation "middle pain"
Corpus luteum? 'yellow body" secrets progesterone and estrogen
Corpus albicans? "white body" can't secrete hormones. deteriorates in 10 days and becomes corpus albicans
Chocolate cyst? blood-filled cyst
Estrogen? promotes maturation of egg, helps to develop secondary sex characteristics
Progesterone? secreted by corpus luteum. works with estrogen to establish menstrual cycle, helps maintain pregnancy, prepares breasts for milk production after pregnancy
Female Genital tract? Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina
The fallopian tubes=uterine tubes=oviducts? each tube is 4 inches long, extends from one side of the uterus to the ovaries. tubes transport the eggs and the tube is the usual site of fertilization of the egg by the sperm
Infundibulum? the funnel -shaped end of the fallopian tube nearest to the ovary and has finger-like projections fimbriae
The fimbriae? finger-like projections hang over the ovary, sweep ova into tubes. site of fertilization, carries ovum to uterus
Ectopic pregnancy? fertilized ovum implants in tube
Scarring and blockage of fallopian tubes? caused by STD's and major cause by infertility
Pelvic inflammatory disease PID? genital tract opens directly into sterile pelvic cavity, associated with STD's
Female Uterus=womb? located between urinary bladder and rectum
The broad ligament? holds the uterus together
Primary function of female uterus? provide safe, nurturing environment for the growing baby
Uterus has 3 parts? the fundus (upper); the body (central); the cervix (lower)
Uterus has 3 layers? 1.epimetrium (or perimetrium)-outer serosal layer 2. myometrium-middle >support> expansion 3. endometrium-inner, has basial & functional layer> implamentation
The vagina? 4 inch muscular tube that extends from the cervix to the vaginal canal opening in the perineum
Hymen? thin membrane in the vaginal opening
Fornices? the pockets around the cervix. site of Pap smear
Vulva? female external genitals. labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibular glands
The vestibule? a cleft between the labia minora
Mons veneris? fat pad covered with pubic hair over symphysis pubis
Labia majora? crescent-shaped fatty tissue containing folds of skin; extends down from mons veneris to perineum
Labia minora? narrow folds of hairless skin between labia majora and vagina
Clitoris? short, sensitive, erectile tissue, anterior junction of the vagina
Perineum? are between vaginal opening and anus composed of muscles and fascia, which supports pelvic structure
Urethral opening? beneath clitoris
Female reproductive cycle? to mature an egg monthly for fertilization. ovarian and uterine cycles.
Female Releasing hormone? hypothalamus>stimulates FSH and LH
Female Follicle-stimulating hormone>FSH? Anterior pituitary>develops ovarian follicle, stimulates estrogen secretion
Female Luteinizing hormone>LH? anterior pituitary>causes ovulation, stimulates corpus luteum to secrete progesterone
Female Estrogen hormone? Ovary>maturation of the ovarian follicle, stimulates the proliferative phase of endometrial development
Female Progesterone hormone? ovary>stimulates the secretary phase of endometrial development
Female Human chronic gonadotrophin hCG? maintains the corpus luteum during early pregnancy
Ovarian cycle? consists of the follicular phase and the luteal phase
The follicular phase? ovarian cycle>estrogen domination * gonadotropins: FSH,LH> * FSH>triggers maturation of follicle, ovum * Follicle secrets estrogen * Estrogen nourishes ovum, uterine lining * Midcycle surge of LH:ovulation *
The Luteal phase? ovarian cycle>progesterone domination(corpus luteum * progesterone enriches uterine lining * luteal phase progresses differently in the pregnant or non-pregnant phase *
The uterine cycle=menstrual cycle? consists of the changes that occur in the endometrium over 28-day period
Menstrual phase? uterine cycle>endometrial lining is shed
Proliferative phase? uterine cycle>estrogen thickens uterine lining
Secretory phase? uterine cycle>progesterone enriches endometrium
Menarche? first period of menstrual bleeding during puberty
Menses? menstrual period
Menopause? decrease in ovarian hormones, menstrual period decreases, eventually cease
Created by: Abraham321