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nha study guide

pre test prep

QuestionAnswer
convert .04 seconds to milliseconds 40 milliseconds
if you increase the speed of paper what will it do it will make it appear slow- all that were bunched up will become clear- example- normal speed 25 - if increase to 50 will become more clear
what is the standard amplitude per calibration box 10 mm per 1 mV - should measure 10 mm tal by 5 mm wide so amplitude of 25 mm/sec and 10 mm/mV
lead 1 - name limb and posititve/negative right arm negative left arm positive and left foot positive
lead 2- name limb and positive/negative right arm negative left foot positive
lead 3 - name limb and positive/negative left arm negative left foot positive
Einthoven's triangle which limb is always positive left foot
1500 method is best for what rhythms fast rythms
300 method is good for all rhythms but what one irregular rhythms
6 second rule is good for what rhythm all
3 lead white right shoulder or clavicle area
3 lead black left shoulder or clavicle area
3 lead red left lower abdominal area
3 lead green (in 5 lead with a brown lead right lower abdominal area -brown just to the right of the bottom of the sternum- similuar to lead V1
why is 3 lead used used to contiuously monitor the patient's heart rythm
why is 5 lead used holter monitor
5 lead white right stermum/ clavicle area
5 lead black left sternum/clavicle area
5 lead red left lower thoracic area
5 lead green right lower thoracic area
5 lead brown just below and to the right of the bottom of the sternum
V1 left side placement 4th intercostal space, right of sternum
V2 left side placement 4th intercostal space, left of sternum
V4 left side placement 5th intercostal space, midclavicular
V6 left side placement 5th intercostal space, midaxillary
who would need a right sided 12 lead 8 years of age and younger-however another part of book says typically just to age 2 but 2-8 can use right side
PR interval the interval is measured from the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS
ST segmant importance looking for patterns of Ischemia
J point where ventricular depolarization stops & ventricular repolarization starts
QT inverval one complete ventricular cycle- measured fromt he beginning of Q wave to the end of T wave
P wave for normal should be for duration less than 110 milliseconds (0.11 seconds)
common for Junctional rhythm missing P wave and rate is 40-60/min- if less than 40 then junctional bradycardia
accelerated Juntional rhythm missing P wave (or inverted)- will see long period with multiple very small waves with a hill with small waves
idioventricular rhythm no P wave- QRS greater than 0.12 and inverted
polymorphic ventricular tachycardia no P waves looks like just irregular wide R waves (QRS but cant really see the q or s- looks like just one mountain after another and different amplitudes
ventricular tachycardia (monomorphic) no P waves , all same amplitude but look like a mountain then a ledge attached
ventricular fibrillation no P waves-looks like irregular shapes and durations of waves
premature ventricular complex (PAC) absent Pwave preceding the early QRS, wide QRS, a QRS that looks diff than the other QRS's, the direction of QRS opposite T wave
Ischemia wave form ST segment depression and/or T wave inversion- deeply interted T waves are a frequently encountered presentation fo ischemia
Injury wave form - STEMI ST segment elevation in tow or more contiguous leads- greater than 1 mm in limb leads and greater than 2 mm in precoridal leads
Infarction wave form two main changes can be observed days to weeks after- complete resolution of and normalization of the tracing or developement of a pathological Q wave
ischemia, injury or infarction lead involment for Inferior wall lead II, III, aVF
ischemia, injury or infarction lead involvment of Septum V1, V2
ischemia, injury or infarction lead involvment of Anterior wall V3, V4 or V1 to V4
ischemia, injury or infarction lead involvment of Lateral wall- high Leads I, aVL
ischemia, injury or infarction lead involvment of Lateral wall - low Leads V5, V6
ischemia, injury or infarction lead involvment of Posterior wall V7 to V9
ischemia, injury or infarction lead involvment of right ventricle Lead V4R
Reciprocal leads (one sees elevation the other sees depression ) for ischemic/injury events - part 1 of 2 Leads II, III, aVF- reciprocal to leads I, aVL
Reciprocal leads (one sees elevation the other sees depression ) for ischemic/injury events - part 2 of 2 Leads V1 to V3- reciprocal to leads II, III, aVF
signs of Ventricular fibrillation (VF) dizziness, impending doom, chest discomfort and shrtnss of breath
diff of VF and VT VF is disorganized and chaotic, VT is organinzed, drop of blood pressure and level of consciousness- low pulse
common cause of asystole large pulmonary embolism, large myocardial infarction, respiratory arrest (hypoxia) and overdose- check another lead
calibration marker measurement 5mm wide by 10 mm tall - gain is ofter printed near bottom 1X , 2X (twice size- etc)
difference of Paced Ventricular Rhythm (ventricular pacer) and Atrial-Ventricular Paced Rhythm (AV Sequential Paced) AV has p wave- both inverted- both have wide QRS
how many leads on holter monitor 5 lead
how many leads on for stress testing 12 lead but put the limb leads on the torso
how many leads on telemetry 3 or 5 lead
when is lead V7, V8, V9 USED when an inferior wall infarction- leads are Posterior wall
what is tachypneic respiratory rate greater that 20/min
respiratory rate at rest adult 12-20/min...//.child 6-12 18-30/// child 1-5 24-34///infant 30-60/min
sign of cardiovascular distress cyanosis is a sign- where headache, nausea, shortness of breath are "symptons"
what are some symptons that you would stop a stress test dizziness and nausea- may be symptons of acute coronary syndrome
common side effect of the beta-blockermetoprol for hypertesion hypotension - beta-blockers cause a decrease in blood pressure
sinus tachycardia characteristics heart reate 100-150 , has p waves, narrow QRS
what may be considered a "positive" Holster test sinus rhythm with ST segment elevation (medical emergency)
60 cycle too many plugged into outlet
broken recordings wires frayed or elctrode pads are loose
interrupted baseline electrode pads are loose
wandering baseline too much lotion or sweat
somatic tremor
Created by: angelshari