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Medications and EEG

TermDefinition
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) A steroid used in the treatment of edema and occasionally infantile spasms with no EEG effects known.
Alcohol (ETOH) A depressant/sedative. Chronic use displays low voltage fast, lower amplitude, and decreased alpha while acute use displays diffuse slowing with increased delta and theta, and decreased alpha activity and frequency.
Aldomet (Methyldopa) An antihypertensive used in the treatment of high blood pressure with no known EEG effects.
Amoxicillin Trihydrate (Augmentin) An antibiotic used to treat certain gram-positive and gram-negative cocci & rods bacteria. High concentrations can yield possible seizures that are unresponsive to anticonvulsants.
Aspirin (ASA)/(Acetylsalicylic Acid) An anti-inflammatory used as an analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory purposes. An overdose can produce diffuse slowing over anterior regions, occasionally in trains.
Atarax (Hydroxyzine) An antihistamine/sedative used as an anti-allergan that can cause an increase in slow waves with alpha depression and enhanced beta.
Benadryl (Diphenhydramine HCL) An antihistamine used as a sleep aid, anti-parkinsonian, and treatment of motion sickness. Can cause possible slowing related to sedative effects.
Brevital (Methohexital) A short-acting sedative/ barbiturate(USA) used in sedation and general anesthesia. Causes increased anterior beta, focal spikes in the susceptible.
Aquachloral Supprettes (Chloral Hydrate) A hypnotic sedative used in sedation and antianxiety. It has little to no effects on the EEG or increased anterior dominant beta activity.
Codeine A narcotic analgesic/antitussive used to treat pain and cough that lowers alpha frequency and increases slowing.
Coumadin (Warfarin Sodium) An anticoagulant/prophylaxis used to treat thromboembilic disorders and recurrent MI. Therapeutic levels will display slowing of alpha and background while intoxication will display diffuse slowing, increased delta and theta, and decreased alpha.
Dalmane (Flurazepam HCL) A hypnotic/sedative used to treat insomnia that displays a marked increase in beta activity.
Darvon (Propoxyphene HCL) A narcotic analgesic used in the treatment of pain and sedation. Low doses display a slight increase in frontal beta while high doses display a slight slowing with beta.
Decadron, Baldex, Dalalone, Dexacort, Dexasone, Maxidex, Solurex, etc. (Dexamethasone) A corticosteroid/anti-inflammatory used to treat cerebral edema and infantile spasms with no known EEG effects.
Demoral (Meperidine) A narcotic analgesic used in mild sedation and pain relief that displays increased amplitude and decreased alpha. In instances of intoxication, there is diffuse slowing. Chronic use displays permanent slowing of alpha.
Depacon, Depakene, Depakote (Valproic Acid) An anticonvulsant used in simple and complex seizures, infantile spasms, and the prevention of migraine headaches. There is no consistent effect although has been known to display decrease epileptiform activity and seizure reduction.
DHE-45 (Dihydroergotamine) An ergot alkaloid used to abort or prevent vascular headaches. No known EEG effects.
Diamox (Acetazolamide) An anticonvulsant/diuretic used to treat edema, glaucoma, and neonatal mixed seizures. No consistent EEG effects.
Dilantin (Phenytoin) An anticonvulsant used in seizures, the prevention of seizures after neurosurgery/trauma, and ventricular arrhythmia, Therapeutic levels display mild slowing while toxic levels display diffuse delta.
Elavil (Amitiptyline HCL) Tricyclic Antidepressant used for the treatment of depression. EEG displays no epileptiform, an increase in beta and slow mixed, and may attenuate alpha.
Cafatine, Cafergot, Cardtrate, Ercaf, Ergomar, Wigraine, etc. (Ergotamine) An ergot alkaloid used in the treatment of migraine prevention and vasoconstriction with no known EEG effects.
Felbatol (Felbamate) An anticonvulsant used when others fail in the treatment of partial seizure w/without secondary generalization, children older than 2YO w/partial and generalized seizures associated w/Lennox-Gastaut. Effects have only been published in animal experiments.
Fiorinal, Fiorgen PF, Isollyl Improved Lanorinal, etc. (Aspirin, Caffeine, and Butalbital) A barbiturate analgesic used as an anti-inflammatory, sedative, antipyretic, or in the treatment of tension/muscle related headaches. Use will display increased beta, w/spread to posterior. High doses display intermixed fast and slow w/dissolution of alph
Haldol (Haloperidol) An anti-psychotic used to treat Tourette Syndrome manifestations, psychoses, tremors, hyperactivity, and Huntingtons Chorea. Use displays slow and fast paradoxical effects.
Fluothane (Halothane) Inhaled general anesthetic. Initial use displays frontal beta then more generalized w/dissolution of alpha. Deeper use activity becomes slower & voltages that increase/burst suppression w/involvement of brain stem functions.
Heroin A narcotic sedative/hypnotic that displays decreased alpha and background. Toxic levels display slowing.
Inderal (Propranolol HCL) An antianginal/antihypertensive/ migraine preventative used to treat heart pain, high blood pressure, and the prevention of migraine headaches. There are no known EEG effects.
Insulin Antidiabetic used to treat blood sugar levels. Use displays bilateral frontocentral theta.
Klonopin (Clonazepam) A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of prophylaxis of absence, petit mal variant (Lennox-Gastaut), akinetic, & myoclonic seizures. Use displays frontal dominant beta activity/decreased alpha & general voltage/slight theta increase. Intoxication display
Lamictal (Lamotrigine) An anticonvulsant used as an adjunct for partial seizures. Displays increases in interictal spiking in photoparoxysmal responses.
Librium (Chlordiazepoxide HCL) An anoxilytic used in sedation, to treat anxiety, and to manage alcohol withdrawal. Displays diffuse, low voltage frontal beta up to two weeks following treatment.
Lithium An antimanic/immunity booster used to treat bipolar disease & psychoses. Displays episodic diffuse slowing of alpha/some paroxysmal generalized slowing with some spikes/may show focal slowing. An overdose will display diffuse slowing/paroxysmal abnormalit
LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) An illegal hallucinogenic that displays decreased amplitude and depression of slow waves and acceleration of alpha.
Mebaral (Mephobarbital) Long acting barbiturate/sedative/hypnotic anticonvulsant used to treat most seizure types and displays frontocentral beta activity.
Mesantoin (Mephenytoin) An anticonvulsant that displays mild slowing with some enhanced beta.
Metrazol (Pentylenetetrazol) A convulsant used in research to activate epileptic foci even with no clinical signs. Displays generalized spike-waves with myoclonus before a tonic-clonic seizure or a focal epileptogenic response.
Morphine A narcotic analgesic used for pain and sedation. Displays slowing of alpha, increased background, and slowing. Intoxication displays diffuse slowing, increase theta and delta, and decreased alpha. Overdoses display seizures.
Mysoline (Primidone) An anticonvulsant used to treat mixed seizures. Displays enhanced anterior beta. Intoxication displays increase delta with superimposed beta activity.
Neurontin (Gabapentin) An anticonvulsant used to treat partial seizures. No effects are seen on the EEG except computer-assisted spectral analysis.
Paradione (Paramethadione) An anticonvulsant used as the 2nd choice for absence seizures. No known EEG effects.
Paral (Paraldehyde) A hypnotic/sedative/anticonvulsant used as a last resort for status epilepticus. Displays mixed fast and slow activity.
PCP (Phencyclidine) An illegal hallucinogen. Displays enhanced beta.
Pentothal (Thiopental Sodium) A general anesthetic. Displays increased beta and may elicit a seizure discharge occasionally. Toxic levels will display slowing.
Luminal, Barbita, Solfton, etc. (Phenobarbital or Phenobarbitone) A hypnotic/sedative/anticonvulsant used to treat most seizure types, including febrile (not for absence), and IV for status epilepticus. Displays increase beta, anterior dominant.
Phenurone (Phenacemide) An anticonvulsant used to treat partial complex seizures only when other treatments fail. There are no known EEG effects.
Prednisol, Prelone, Pred Forte, Ophthalmic, Articulose-50, Delta-Cortef, Hydeltasol, etc. (Prednisone) A glucocorticoid/antiinflammatory/immunosuppressant used for adrenocortical inefficiencies. No known EEG effects.
Prozac (Fluoxetine HCL) An antidepressant/SSRI used to treat depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. No effects seen on EEG.
Ritalin (Methylphenidate) A CNS stimulant/analeptic used to treat hyperactivity and narcolepsy. There is often no change or enhanced beta.
Seconal (Secobarbital Sodium) A sedative/hypnotic used to treat short-term insomnia. Displays frontal or temporal beta.
Sinequan (Doxepin HCL) An anxiolytic/antidepressant used to treat depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety. Displays fast and slow activity.
Amytal (Sodium Amytal or Amobarbital Sodium) A CNS depressant/sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic/anticonvulsant use to treat insomnia and used during Wada testing. Displays enhanced beta.
Stelazine (Trifluoperazine) An antianxiety/antipsychotic used to treat anxiety and depression. Displays little to no change with standard use but displays diffuse slowing with increase delta and decreased alpha in toxic doses.
Talwin (Pentazocine Lactate) A narcotic agonist used as a pain killer. No known EEG effects.
Thorazine (Chlorpromazine) A tranquilizer/antiemetic used as a antipsychotic and sedative. Displays slowing to paradoxical activity, lowered seizure threshold, and increased amplitudes.
Tridione (Trimethsdione) An anticonvulsant used to treat absence seizures when other medications are ineefective. No known EEG change.
Valium (Diazepam) A sedative/anxiolytic/skeletal muscle relaxant/adjunct anticonvulsant used to treat anxiety, muscle spasm, and seizures. Displays high amplitude diffuse beta.
Zarontin (Ethosuximide) An anticonvulsant used to treat absence seizures. Displays decrease spike and wave activity with altered vigilance, or no effects.
Created by: akesselman