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Neuro Disorders

Neurological Disorders

TermDefinition
Early Infantile Myoclonic Encephalopathy (EIME) Widespread spasms dominate the clinical picture with myoclonus overshadowing tonic attacks.
Ohtahara Syndrome/ Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (EIEE) Neurological disorder characterized by seizures. The disorder affects newborns, usually within the first three months of life (most often within the first 10 days) in the form of epileptic seizures.
Nonepileptic Events (Pseudoseizures) A nonepileptic attack brought on by psychogenic rather than organic cerebral causes.
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain.
Encephalopathy General term meaning a disease of the brain.
Seizure A sudden attack or recurrence of convulsions, temporary loss of consciousness, or motor or sensory events caused by abnormal electrical activity of a group of brain cells.
Status Epilepticus A continuous seizure that will not stop without intervention.
Epilepsy A disorder of recurrent seizures.
Narcolepsy A disorder in which a person is seized by the sudden urge to sleep.
Cataplexy Sudden episodes of loss of muscle function, ranging from slight weakness to complete body collapse. Episodes last from seconds to several minutes. There is no loss of consciousness. Unique to narcolepsy.
Sleep Paralysis Temporary inability to talk or move when falling asleep or upon waking up. Lasts a few seconds to several minutes.
Hypnagogic Hallucinations Vivid, often frightening, dreamlike experiences that occur while dozing, falling asleep or upon waking.
Hydrocephalus An increase in the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the head.
Meningioma A benign tumor growing from the arachnoid.
Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges.
Meningocele A bulge in the meninges through a breach in the bony coverings.
Meningoencephalitis Inflammation of the meninges and brain.
Aneurysm A weak bulge in an artery wall, prone to rupture and cause hemorrhage. It can be corrected with neurosurgery using a clip.
Migraine Periodic, throbbing, severe, frequently unilateral headaches. Photophobia and phonophobia are common as well as nausea and vomiting.There may be an aura of visual fortification spectra, scintillating scotomas, or flashes of light.
Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome A syndrome composed of more that one type of seizure, often including atonic seizures, an EEG finding of slow spike and wave complexes from 1 to 2.5 /sec and sometimes runs of rapid spikes.
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) An acute neurologic deficit of vascular origin that clears completely. Can last minutes to hours but not more than 24 hrs. (Can be an indication that the patient is at risk of having a stroke.)
Stroke Most frequent expression of cerebrovascular disease, sudden and severe focal onset of neurological deficit of vascular origin caused by emboli, thrombosis or hemorrhage, lasting more than 24 hrs.
Embolism The sudden blocking of an artery or a vein by a clot or obstruction which has been brought to its place by blood current.
Thrombus A clot or plug in a blood vessel formed by coagulation and remaining at the point of its formation.
Hemorrhage Literally "to burst forth". A copious escape of blood from the vessels.
Infantile Spasms Also known as "Jack-Knife Attacks". A type of seizure in infants, consisting of sudden tonic and myoclonic spasms with massive flexion of the head, trunk and extremities. This type of seizure is associated with the EEG pattern of hypsarrhythmia.
Benign Rolandic Epilepsy (BRE), Benign Central-Temporal Spikes (BECTS), Benign Rolandic Epilepsy of Childhood (BREC) Occurring in children with central sharp waves or spike, and sometimes but not always associated with seizures.
Landau-Kleffner Syndrome A rare, childhood neurological disorder characterized by aphasia and associated with convulsive seizures.
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Characterized by a brief but widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord that damages myelin – the protective covering of nerve fibers and often follows viral or bacterial infections, or less often, vaccination for measles, mumps, or ru
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) A neurobehavioral disorder that interferes with a person's ability to stay on a task and to exercise age-appropriate inhibition (cognitive alone or both cognitive and behavioral).
Arnold-Chiari Malformation A condition in which there are structural defects in the cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls balance.
Agnosia A rare disorder characterized by an inability to recognize and identify objects or persons.
Alexander Disease A rare disorder of the nervous system. It is one of a group of disorders, called leukodystrophies, that involve the destruction of myelin. It's also a progressive and often fatal disease.
Alternating Hemiplegia A rare neurological disorder that develops in childhood, most often before the child is 18 months old. The disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of paralysis that involve one or both sides of the body, multiple limbs, or a single limb.
Alzheimer's Disease An age-related brain disorder that develops over a period of years. Initially, people experience memory loss & confusion which gradually leads to behavior/personality changes, a decline in cognitive abilities, & problems recognizing family and friends.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Sometimes called Lou Gehrig's disease or classical motor neuron disease, it is a rapidly progressive, invariably fatal neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for controlling voluntary muscles.
Created by: akesselman