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Paroxysmal tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, tachydysrhythmia, and tachypnea all refer to abnormally rapid activity
Location and size of the heart Cone shaped muscular pump. Size of the fist. Located in the thoracic cavity, the apex of it resting on the diaphragm and its base at the level of second rib. Weighing less than a pound =.45 kilos
Layers of the heart Epicardium * Myocardium * Endocardium
Epicardium thin outermost layer of the heart also known as Visceral Pericardium
Myocardium middle layer of the heart and is the thickest of the three layers
Endocardium Also lines the valves, smooth shiny surfaces surface allows the blood to flow over it easily
Pericardium the heart is supported by a sling like structure, which attaches the heart to surrounding structures - diaphragm and blood vessels
Function of Myocardium this thick layer helps pump the blood
Why is the heart called the DOUBLE pump? it has 2 circulations = Pulmonary Circulation - heart to lungs back to heart Systemic - heart to rest of the body and back (larger of the two circulations)
Blood is also know as Conduit
What are the chambers of the heart? 2 upper Atrium (thin walled cavity receiving the unoxygenated blood) 2 lower Ventricles (right pumping blood to lungs and left to the rest of the body)
Which is the largest artery of the body? Aorta
Why is the left ventricular myocardium thicker than the right? to create enough force to pump blood out of the heart into the systemic circulation
What is Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)? is enlargement and thickening (hypertrophy) of the walls of your heart's main pumping chamber (left ventricle).High BP if not lowered, the LV will eventually weaken and fail to pump.
What is heart murmur? is an unusual sound heard between heartbeats, especially when the valves are damaged and a backflow happens.
What is the major function of the cardiovascular system? Transportation - using blood as it's transport vehicle, the systems carries nutrients, gases, waste, antibodies, electrolytes and many other substances to and from body cells.
Function of the heart valves? to keep the blood flowing in the forward direction
What are the blood vessels attached to the heart? Superior and inferior vena cava * Left and right pulmonary arteries * 2 X Left and 2 X right Pulmonary veins * Aorta
Only artery with deoxigenated blood? Pulmonary artery
Only Vein with oxigenated blood? Pulmonary vein
Name the 4 valves? The mitral valve and tricuspid valve, which control blood flow from the atria to the ventricles ***** The aortic valve and pulmonary valve, which control blood flow out of the ventricles.
What is difference between systole and diastole pressure? 120 S / 80 D Systolic represents the maximum pressure exerted on the arteries. Left & right ventricles contract and empties blood. **** Diastolic represents the minimum pressure in the arteries are relaxed and fill with blood.
What is Cardiac tamponade? when blood or fluids fill the space between the sac that encases the heart & the heart muscle. This places extreme pressure on your heart, preventing the heart's ventricles from expanding fully and keeps your heart from functioning properly.
Pulse pressure Difference between Systole and Diastole
What closes the AV valve? Pressure
How are the heart sounds made? What makes the Lubb-DuPP sounds? The vibrations caused by the closure of the valves.
Purpose of the heart.... to keep the blood flowing
The blood supply that nourishes and oxygenates the myocardium.... coronary arteries
What is ischemia? If coronary blood flow diminishes, the myocardium experiences O2 deprivation
Cardiac impulse pathway... The sino-atrial (SA) node * The atrio-ventricular (AV) node * The bundle of His * The left and right bundle branches * The Purkinje fibres *
What happens when the SA fails to function as a pacemaker? The AV node takes over and fires at a slower rate of 40 to 60 beats / minute.
What is ECG ? Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
What are the components of a ECG? P wave * QRS complex * T wave
How is the LUBB sound made? caused by the closure of the AV valves beginning at the ventricular contraction
How is the DUPP sound made? caused by the closure of the semi-lunar valves beginning at the ventricular relaxation
Flow of blood through the heart... superior /inferior vena cava * right atrium * tricuspid valve * right ventricle * pulmonic valve * pulmonary artery * lungs * pulmonary veins * left atrium * mitral valve * left ventricle * aortic valve * aorta * body *
Digoxin slows heart rate
Epinephrine and Dopamine increases heart rate
Base upper left portion of the heart
Apex lower portion of the ehart
Precordium area of the anterior chest wall, overlying heart and great vessels
Endocardium hearts innermost layer
Myocardium middle layer of the heart
Epicardium thin outher-most layer of the heart
Pericardium slinglike structure around the heart
Visceral pericardium the innermost layer(closest the the heart)
Parietal pericardium inner layer pericardium folds back and becomes?
Fibrous pericardium anchors the heart to its surrounding structures
Pericardial space or cavity between Visceral pericardium and Parietal pericardium
Pericardial effusion collection of fluid in Pericardial space
Cardiac Tamponade heart is unable to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the body
Pulmonary circulation blood follows from RIGHT side of the heart to and through the lungs and back to the LEFT side of the heart
Systemic circulation blood follows from LEFT heart to ALL organs of the body and back to RIGHT heart
How many chambers in the heart? 2 atria and 2 ventricals
Atria upper chambers, receive the blood into the heart
Ventricles lower chambers; pump blood out of the heart
Interatrial septum separates two atria
Interventricular septum separates two ventricles
Superior Vena Cava collects blood from head and upper body region
Inferior Vena Cava collects blood from the lower body region
Left Atrium thin-walled cavity receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through 4 pulmonary veins
Left Ventricle receives the blood from LEFT Atrium
Ventricular hyperthrophy enlarged, over-worked ventricle
Great vessels large blood vessels attached to the heart: Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, aorta
Atrioventricular Valves (AV) located between atria and ventricles
Semilunar valves cups of the valves resemble a half-moon; controls outflow of blood from right and left ventricles and exit valves
Right AV valve tricuspid valve; located between right atrium and right ventricle
LEFT AV valve mitral valve; located between left atrium and left ventricle
Pulmonic semilunar valve located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Aortic semilunar valve located between left ventricle and the aorta
Stenosis narrowing of the valve
Incompetent valve allows blood to leak back into the chambers from which it has been pumped
Murmurs abnormal heart sounds
Left-to-Right Shunt ventricular septal defect (VSD) in child; hole in the interventrical septum. Blood is shunted from Left to right heart
Right-to-Left Shunt a child who has VSD (ventricular septal defect) and stenotic (narrowed) pulmonic valve
Coronary veins collect the blood that nourishes the myocardium
Coronary sinus Coronary veins carry the blood to C_sinus which empties the blood into the right atrium
Angina Chest or arm pain resulting from reduced oxygen supply to the heart muscle.
Myocardial infarction heart attack
Heart functions pump supplying blood to all cell in the body
Cardiac Cycle sequence of events that occurs during the heartbeat
Systole contraction of the heart muscle (myocardium)
Diastole relaxation of the myocardium; blood fills atria during diastole
Atrial systole atria contracts and pumps blood in to the ventricles; valves are open and ventricles relaxed
Ventricular systole contraction of ventricals
Sympathetic stimulation "fight and flight" response; increases SA node activity, heart rate UP, myocardial contraction UP; speed at which cardiac impuls travels UP
Parasympathetic (Vagus Nerve) Stimulation "feed and breed" response; SA node activity DOWN, cardiac impulse DOWN
Bradycardia excess vagal discharge; heart problems
Bradydysrhythmias abnormally slow rhythms
Cardiac output amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute
Sternum middle bone
Steam cell neutral cell, can become any type of cell in body.
Hemolytic babies, immature liver trying to get rid of dead, red blood cells
What are circulation functions? Delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, antibodies to organs, tissues, cells
What are heart functions? Pumps oxygenated blood into arterial system to supply capillaries and tissues; pumps oxygen-poor blood from venous system through the lungs to be re-oxygenated
"SIS" / "SISTOL" state or condition; contraction
"POIKILO" irregular
"ANISO" unequal, irregular
"GLOBIN" protein
"HEME" contains iron
CBC complete blood count
DIGOXIN Also Lanoxin. Slows the heart rate and may restore normal sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation pts. and increases cardiac contracticity, strengthening the pumping force of the heart for CHF pts
"BRADY" slow
What clinical features would you expect to see in someone who was reporting chest pain Sweating, nausea, shortness of breathe, pain, fatigue, fast heart beat, trouble breathing, confusion, ashen colour
Created by: Abraham321