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The outermost covering of the kidney is the _____ capsule
The entrance into the kidney is called the _____. hilum
What is the basic functional unit of the kidney? nephron
The mucosa of the bladder is comprised of _____. transitional epithelium
external sphincter is under voluntary control
What causes urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder? peristalsis
Vigorous exercise could release high amounts of _____ into the urine. albumin
Which of these could appear in the urine from dieting or the utilization of excess lipids? ketone
Which of these could appear in the urine from dieting or the utilization of excess lipids? urea
The action of aldosterone is to increase _____. sodium reabsorption
Which of the following occurred by active transport? reabsorption of amino acids
The targets of angiotensin II are blood vessels and _____. adrenal cortex
Renin acts on _____ to convert it to angiotensin I. angiotensinogen
How much urine is formed in 24 hours? 1.5l
Which of the following is usually not found in the urine? glucose
Which ion is reabsorbed in exchange for sodium? potassium
Which muscle metabolism waste product is eliminated by the kidneys? creatinine
The last part of a nephron is the _____. collecting duct
Which section of the nephron follows the ascending limb of the loop of Henle? distal convoluted tubule
The renal corpuscle is comprised of a glomerulus and _____. Bowman's capsule
How much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys? 25%
What is the function of the renal system? A) maintain blood pH B) regulate blood pressure C) control blood concentration
The kidney secretes _____ which is an enzyme-hormone which raises blood pressure. Renin
What determines the membrane permeability of the collecting duct to water – antidiuretic hormone (ADH),
mineralocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex – aldosterone,
stimulates the distal tube to reabsorb sodium and excrete potassium – aldosterone,
secreted by the juxtaglomerular apparatus cells; activates angiotensinogen – renin,
secreted by the walls of the heart; causes the renal excretion of sodium and water – brain natruretic peptide (BNP)
What subsctance is not eliminated through the kidneys and Urinary System? CO2
Renin: is a blood pressure regulating substance
Micturation refers to urination
Which of the following is least true of Aldosterone? determines the membrane permeability of the collecting duct to water
ADH determines the membrane permeability of the collecting duct to water
A drug that blocks the renal reabsorption of Sodium causes diuresis
Why is glucose normally not excreted in the urine? all filtered glucose is reabsorbed
Facts about urine: Normal urine is sterile. It contains fluids, salts and waste products, but it is free of bacteria, viruses and fungi.
Parts of renal system 2 kidneys * 2 urethers * Two sphincter muscles * Nerves in the bladder * Urethra
Functions of renal system Regulation of water and inorganic ion balance * Removing metabolic waste form blood and excreting in urine * Removing foreign chemicals from blood *
Albuminuria The abnormal presence of albumin protein in the urine
Erythropoietin A substance released by the kidneys and liver that promotes red blood cell formation
Urology The scientific, clinical, and especially surgical aspects of the study of the urine and the genitourinary tract in health and disease
Cystitis Infection of the urinary bladder
Creatine Nitrogenous waste from muscle metabolism that is excreted in urine
Epididymis A long, coiled tube that rests on top and lateral side of each testes
BPH A condition in which the signs and symptoms include urinary urgency and frequency, difficulty starting urination, hematuria and repeated urinary tract infections (UTI's)
Cryptorchidism Undescended testicles
Enuresis Bed wetting
Renal calculi Kidney stones
Three processes of urine formation Glomerular formation- Occurs in glomerulus * Tubular reabsorption and secretion- reabsorption occurs in PCT/ secretion occurs in DCT * Water conservation- occurs in collecting duct (CD)
List the signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection (UTI) Overwhelming urge to urinate (urgency) * Burning of urination (Dysuria )* Urgency with frequent, small amount of urine * Blood in the urine (hemoturia) or cloudy, dark, foul smelling urine * Frequent urination at night (nocturia)
Aldosterone Steroid secreted by the adrenal cortex; stimulates the kidney to reabsorb Na and H2O and to excrete K.
Angiotensin 2 Elevates B/P and stimulates the secretion of testosterone by the adrenal cortex
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Posterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the collecting duct in the kidney to absorb H2O thereby decreasing urinary output; also called vasopressin
Collecting ducts Nephron structure that receives urine from the distal tubule and delivers it to the renal pelvis
Creatinine Nitrogeneous waste product that is excreted by the kidneys
Detrusor muscle Smooth muscle located in the urinary bladder
Dialysis Passive transport process that allows small particles to diffuse through a semipermeable membrane
Diuresis Increase excretion of urine
Glomerulus Tuft of capillaries located in the Bowmans capsule of the nephron unit of the kidney
Juxtaglomerular apparatus Specialized structure in the kidney formed by the distal convoluted tubule and the afferent arterioles; the resin- secreting cells
Kidney Organ of the urinary system that produces urine; contains the nephron units
Loop of Henle Hairpin- looped tubular structure of the nephron unit that receives urine from the proximal tubule and delivers it to the distal tubule
Micturition Urination
Natriuresis Excretion of Na into the urine
Natriuretic peptides Protein hormones that promote the excretion of Na into the urine; include atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide
Nephron unit Structural and functional unit of the kidney that makes urine
Peritubular capillaries Capillaries that surround the tubular structure of the nephron unit; print concerned with reabsorption and secretion in the formation of urine.
Renal artery Artery that delivers oxygenated blood to the kidney
Renal tubules Tubular part of nephron unit that helps make and transport urine; consists of the Bowmans capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting ducts
Renal vein The vein that carries unoxygenated blood from the kidney to the inferior vena cava
Renin Enzymes secreted by the kidney that activates angiotensinogen
Specific gravity When referring to urine, density of urine compared with density of an equal volume of H2O
Ureter Tube that conducts urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
Urethra Tube that conducts urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body
Urinary bladder Hollow pelvic organ that receives urine from the kidneys and stores it until it can be expelled.
Urinary specific gravity Density of urine as compared to water; the greater the solute in urine, the higher is it's specific gravity
Urine Product of nephron unit function of the kidneys; composed mostly of H2O, waste, and ions.
4 organs of excertion Kidneys, skin, lungs, intestines
Major organs of the urinary system Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
Location of urinary system Posterior wall of the abdominal cavity , behind the peritoneum (retroperitoneal)
Structure of the kidneys Reddish-brown, bean like structure enclosed in a tough fibrous capsule. 4" long, 2" wide and 1" thick.
Hilus Indentation of the kidney. Point at which blood vessels, ureter, and nerves enter and exit the kidney.
Function of the kidneys Excrete nitrogeneous waste, regulate blood volume, regulate electrolyte concentration, regulate pH and b/p, and stimulate RBC production
Nephron unit Functional urine making unit of the kidney composed of tubular structures and vascular formation
Glomerular filtration Filters 180L of filtrate in 24hrs
Tubular reabsorption Causes reabsorption of 178.5 L of filtrate. Either is completely or incompletely reabsorbed actively or passively.
Tubular secretion Small amount of special substances from the peritubular capillaries into the tubules
Aldosterone Stimulates the distal tubule and upper collecting duct to reabsorb Na and H2O and to excrete K. ***** Secretion is regulated primarily by the resin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Stimulates the collecting duct to reabsorb H2O and releases from the posterior pituitary gland in response to low blood volume and increased concentration of solute in the plasma
Natruiretic peptides (ANP, BNP) Inhibit the reabsorption of Na and H2O, thereby causing antithesis and the excretion of H2O
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Stimulates the renal reabsorption of calcium and the excretion of phosphate.
Normal constituents of urine Amount- average 1500mL/day ** pH- avg 6 range 4.6-8 ** Specific gravity- 1.001-1.035 ** Color- yellow (Amber, straw-colored, deep yellow in dehydration, pale yellow w/ overhydration)
ureters 2 long slender tubes that carry urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder
Urinary bladder Temporary reservoir holds urine
Urethra Tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
Created by: Abraham321