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Nursing-GI Tract

Pyloric Sphincter The pyloric sphincter lies between the pylorus and the duodenum. It controls of the exit of chyme (food and gastric acid mixture) from the stomach.
How does digestion takes place? Digestion begins in the mouth with the secretion of saliva and its digestive enzymes. Food is formed into a bolus by the mechanical mastication and swallowed into the esophagus from where it enters the stomach through the action of peristalsis.
There are two kinds of digestion: Mechanical digestion involves physically breaking the food into smaller pieces which begins in the mouth as the food is chewed. Chemical digestion involves breaking down the food into simpler nutrients that can be used by the cells.
What is the main organs of the digestive system? Salivary glands. Pharynx. Esophagus. Stomach. Small Intestine. Large Intestine. Rectum. Accessory digestive organs: liver, gallbladder, pancreas.
What happens to the food when it is in the stomach? Once filled with food, the stomach grinds and churns the food to break it down into small particles. It then pushes the small particles of food into the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum.
Where does most of the digestion and absorption take place? The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of our food takes place.
Where does the digestion of starch take place? begins in the mouth. The salivary glands in the mouth secrete saliva, which helps to moisten the food. The food is then chewed while the salivary glands also release the enzyme salivary amylase
What is the digestive system made up of? GI tract—also called the digestive tract—and the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. ... The hollow organs that make up the GI tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine—which includes the rectum—and anus.
How long does it take for food to pass through the body? 6 - 8 hours
Does the pharynx and esophagus have any digestive function? NO
Deglutition swallowing
Defecation elimination as feces
What are the only 2 things absorbed in the stomach? Aspirin and alcohol (20%)
Where in the GI tract is H2O absorbed? Small intestine
Salivary glands produce about ________liter per day of saliva 1.5
Small intestine absorbs: Alcohol (80%) Water Fats Amino Acids Glucose Water-soluble vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins (incl. A, D, E and K) Bile (a thick alkaline fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; helps with chemical digestion)
Large Intestine absorbs: Acids and bases Water Remainder of sodium (Na) and potassium (K)
Why is Kerbs cycle important? it produces virtually all of CO2 and H20
Liver converts harmful _____________ into urea and is passed out as urine ammonia
Role of liver in metabolism? detoxifies drugs and alcohol * breaks down hormones * produces cholesterol and blood proteins
Bile is released into ______________ duedonem
What is bile made up of? this greenish yellow substance is made up of acids, salts, H2O, cholesterol and lipids
What are some of the middle age GI tract problems? Ulcers - due to stress and ibuprofen
Why do newborns vomit frequently? peristalsis is inefficient, thus they vomit
Where does the alimentary canal begin and end at? starts at the mouth and end at the anus
Besides the salivary glands in the lining of your mouth, you have three pairs of larger salivary glands — the parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands.
What is peristalsis, and how does it work? create synchronized waves — one after another — that propel the pie into your stomach
What is chyme? Your digestive glands in your stomach lining produce stomach acid and enzymes, which mix with the food to form a murky semi fluid or paste called chyme.
Pancreas produce.... The pancreas produces digestive enzymes that help break down proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
Liver produces.... the liver produces bile, a solution that helps you digest fats.
Gallbladder produces.... the gallbladder stores bile. As fatty food enters the upper portion of your small intestine (the duodenum), the gallbladder squeezes bile into the small intestine through the bile ducts.
What is the difference between Biloric and Piloric spincter? Biloric guards the entry to stomach whereas the Piloric guards the exit from stomach
Krebs cycle is also know as... The citric acid cycle (CAC) also tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
What is metabolism? metabolism is the sum of all physical and chemical processes that occur in the body, building up or breaking down substances.
What is Kerbs cycle? The Krebs cycle is the slowest working metabolic pathway for energy production, it allows the body to maintain its energy level during endurance activities. Allows the body to sustain long-term energy because it produces most energy.
The presence of ____________ stimulates the peristaltic movement. food
Nervous system of the GI tract Enteric Nervous System (ENS)
Tow sets of teeth are: Deciduous (baby teeth or milk teeth) - 20 in number * * Permanent - 32
Parts of the teeth: Crown - neck and root
What are the mouth conditions that are drug induced? Gingivitis and Stomatitis
At what age does back molars appear? 17-25 years of age.
Describe a tongue? A muscular organ that occupies the floor of the mouth.
Functions of a tongue... Facilitating in the chewing and swallowing * contains taste buds
What anchors the tongue to the base of the mouth? Frenulum
Teeth is located in ____________ sockets
Why do medications absorb rapidly when administered sublingually? It has an extensive network of capillaries with a rich supply of blood
Saliva reaches the mouth by way of ____________ tiny ducts
Which organ is both respiratory and digestive? Pharynx
What is Uvula? A V-shape piece of soft tissue that hangs down from the upper-back region of the mouth. It helps in swallowing.
What are the 3 parts of the pharynx? Nasopharnyx * Oropharynx * Laryngopharnyx
What is the esophagus ? is a muscular tube connecting the throat (pharynx) with the stomach. It is about 10 inches long, and is lined by moist pink tissue called mucosa. Runs behind the windpipe (trachea) & heart, and in front of the spine and passes through the diaphragm.
What is the most common esophagus disorder? Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is characterised by burning sensation called a heartburn or pyrosis, resulting from high acidity in stomach contents.
Emesis Vomiting
Location of stomach The stomach is a muscular organ located on the left side of the upper abdomen under the diaphragm
What are the parts of the stomach? Fundus, body, pylorus
How big can the stomach get? approx 1 liter
Functions of the stomach? Secretion of gastric juice * gastric hormones * regulation of the rate at which the partially digested food is delivered to the small intestine * digestion of food * absorption
Length of small intestine 6 meters (20 feet)
Parts of the small intestine duodenum (size of 12 fingers approx 10 inches) * jejunum (8 feet 2.4 m) * ileum (12 feet 3.6 m)
Primary function of the small intestine chemical digestion and absorption
Function of the folds of the intestine folds increase the surface area to increase absorption and digestive function
Microvilli Microvilli are hairs that aid in absorption of nutrients.
Tonsils of stomach Appendix
What is appendicitis? is an inflammation of the appendix, a 3 1/2-inch-long tube of tissue that extends from the large intestine. Failure to remove, causes it to rupture and the fecal matter spills into the peritoneal cavity.
What is peritonitis? When the fecal matter spills it causes a life threatening infection called .
Appendectomy surgical removal of appendix
Parts of large intestine ascending colon (cecum) * transverse colon * descending colon.
No hormones and digestive juices are secreted in the ____________ large intestine
Common disease of the large intestine E-coli
What is rectum? 6 inch tubeless striped structure. Is the final segment of the large intestine that connects the colon to the anus. It stores fecal matter produced in the colon until the body is ready to eliminate the waste through the process of defecation.
What is normal flora? the presence of bacteria in the intestinal tract is normal and is called normal flora, which accounts to 30% of the fecal content.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) Inflammation of the colon caused by the bacteria Clostridium difficile.
Location, size, weight and shape of liver Large reddish brown organ located in the mid and right abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. Much of the liver is tucked under the right rib cage. Largest gland of the body, 2 main lobes, separated by a ligament. About 1.5 kg.
The liver is surrounded by a fibrous membrane called a ______________ capsule
Hepatic refers to the ______________ liver
Functions of the liver... synthesis of bile salts & secretion of bile * synthesis of plasma proteins * storage * detoxification * excretion * metabolism of carbs, proteins, fats * phagocytosis
What does liver store? Glucose in the form of glycogen, vitamins A, D, E, K, B12
What does liver excrete? Bilirubin, cholesterol, drugs.
What does detoxify? drugs and other harmful substances are changed into substance that can be easily eliminated by the kidneys.
What is the functional unit of the liver? Liver lobules. The liver has thousands of them.
The liver has a unique arrangement of blood vessels called the _______________ hepatic portal system.
Blood leaves the liver through the __________ and empties into the ___________________ hepatic veins * inferior vena cava
How much blood does the liver receive about 1.5 liter / minute from 2 sources the portal vein and the hepatic artery.
What is biliary tree? the ducts that connect the liver, gallbladder and the duodenum
Function of the gallbladder.... store and concentrate the bile. the gall bladder concentrates about 1200ml bile per day
Size and location of the gall bladder.... pear shaped sac attached to the underside of the liver
Created by: Abraham321