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Glands are small organs located throughout your body that secrete (that means release) substances called Hormones
Where are the major endocrine glands located? brain, neck, abdomen, and groin
This gland is sometimes called the master gland, though it is only about the size of a pea Pituitary
What is your largest endocrine gland? Hint: It’s found in your belly! Pancreas
What is a common problem with the endocrine system? Diabetes
What hormone does the pancreas make? Insulin
Where can you find the pituitary gland? At the base of your brain
Which gland makes hormones that help you grow and stay full of energy? Thyroid
A group of cells that gives off or secretes chemicals Gland
This links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. Hypothalamus
The master gland that controls many bodily functions. Pituitary
This controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins and controls how sensitive the body should be to other hormones. Thyroid
Bodily chemical messengers that send messages from one set of cells to another, affecting changes. Hormones
These glands control the amount of calcium in the blood and bones. Parathyroid
These release hormones in conjunction with stress. Adrenal
This affects wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions. Pineal
Which hormone: Stimulates milk production Lactogenic Hormone
After consuming a banana split, which hormones would be expected to increase? Insulin
What is a specialist of the endocrine system called? Endocrinologist
Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine functions? Pancreas
What is a hormone? It is a chemical messenger that influences or controls the activities of other organs or tissues.
Shape of parathyroid glands Butterfly shape
Islet of Langerhams Pancreas
Shape and location of Pitutary gland Pea shaped, base of the brain
Growth hormone Somatotropin or somatotropic hormone
Function of Growth hormone growth of bones, cartilage, and skeletal muscles and thereby effecting the size and height
Cortisol has an anti-inflammatory effect
Location and shape of pancreas Long slender organ that lies transversely across the abdomen, extending from the curve of the duodenum to the spleen
What are the hormones of the anterior pituitary gland? Prolactin TSH - thyroid-stimulating hormone ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone GH - growth hormone Gonadotropins FSH - follicle-stimulating hormone LH - luteinizing hormone
Endocrine glands Secrete the chemical substances called hormones. Ductless glands.
Hormone A chemical messenger that influences or controls the activities of other tissues or organs. Play an important role in growth and reproduction and help regulate water and electrolyte balance.
Target tissue or organ Each hormone binds to a specific tissue called this.
Endocrinology The study of the endocrine system.
Specificity The hormone-receptor relationship ensures ______________, meaning that there is a specific hormone for each receptor.
Second messenger The interaction of the hormone with its receptor stimulates that production of a __________ _____________ such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
Negative feedback A mechanism activated by an imbalance; activation of the mechanism then corrects the imbalance.
Biorhythms A rhythmic alteration in a hormone's rate of secretion.
Circadian rhythm A 24-hour rhythm; its pattern repeats every 24 hours.
Chronopharmacology The branch of pharmacology that studies the effect of biorhythms on drug effects.
Psychoneuroendocrinology The word used for the close relation of the functions of the nervous system and the endocrine system.
Pituitary gland Also called the hypophysis; is a pea-sized gland located in a depression of the sphenoid bone. "Master gland".
Infundibulum The short stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the undersurface of the hypothalamus.
Releasing hormones Stimulate the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones.
Release-inhibiting hormones Inhibit the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones.
Hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system The network of capillaries that the hypothalamus secretes its hormones into. They connect the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary gland.
Anterior pituitary gland Adenohypophysis; composed of epithelial tissue. Secretes six major hormones.
Growth hormone (GH) Somatotropin or somatotropic hormone. ** Stimulates the growth of bone and soft tissue; stimulates the synthesis of glucose during periods of fasting.
Prolactin Lactogenic hormone. Stimulates the breast to develop and produce milk.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyrotropin; stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones (T3 and T4).
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete steroids; especially cortisol.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Stimulates the development of ova and sperm.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) Causes ovulation in women; stimulates secretion of progesterone in women and testosterone in men.
What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary gland? ADH - antidiuretic hormone ** Oxytocin
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys; also constricts blood vessels.
Oxytocin Contracts uterine muscle during labor; releases milk from the mammary glands (during breast-feeding).
What are the hormones of the thyroid and parathyroid glands? T3 and T4 - thyroid hormones ** Calcitonin ** PTH - parathyroid hormone
Thyroid hormones (T3, T4) Triiodothyronine (T3) and tetralodothyronine (T4, or thyroxine secreted by the thyroid gland; control metabolic rate and regulate growth and development.
Calcitonin Secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases plasma levels of calcium.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases plasma calcium.
What are the hormones of the adrenal gland? Catecholamines - epinephrine and norepinephrine ** Steroids - cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
Catecholamines - epinephrine and norepinephrine Stimulate the "fight or flight" response.
Cortisol Glucocorticoid that helps regulate glucose, fat, and protein metabolism; is part of the stress response.
Aldosterone Mineralcorticoid that causes the kidneys to reabsorb sodium and water and excrete potassium; helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance.
Sex hormones The androgens (especially testosterone) help develop the secondary sex characteristics in the female and male.
What are the hormones of the pancreas? Insulin ** Glucagon
Insulin Secreted by beta cells of the islets of Langerhans; helps regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; lowers blood glucose levels.
Glucagon Secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans; raises blood glucose levels.
Estrogens and progesterone Secreted by the ovaries; stimulate the development of the ova (eggs) and development of secondary sex characteristics in the female.
Testosterone Secreted primarily by the testes; chief male androgen; stimulates development of sperm and secondary sex characteristics in the male.
Thymosins Stimulates maturation of the T lymphocytes.
Melatonin Secreted by the pineal gland; helps set the biorhythms.
Acromegaly Excess secretion of growth hormone in the adult.
Pituitary dwarfism Deficiency of growth hormone in childhood.
Posterior pituitary gland Neurohypophysis; composed of nervous tissue.
Diabetes insipidus The ADH deficiency disease where profound diuresis occurs and the person may excrete up to 25 L/day of dilute urine.
Vasopressin Blood pressure-elevating.
Milk let-down reflex The release of milk in response to suckling.
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) The fetal pituitary gland secretes this and it influences pigmentation of the skin.
Isthmus The thyroid gland is butterfly-shaped and has two lobes connected by a band of tissue called?
Follicles The secretory units of the thyroid gland.
Colloid Clear, viscous substance that fills the cavities of each follicle in the thyroid gland.
Myxedema Hypothyroidism in an adult results in a condition called? A slowed down metabolic state characterized by a slow heart rate, sluggish peristalsis resulting in constipation, a low body temperature, low energy, loss of hair, and weight gain.
Cretinism A condition that develops when an infant is born with no thyroid gland. They fail to develop both physically and mentally. The child will be short and stocky, with abnormal skeletal development and severe mental retardation.
Graves' disease Common type of hyperthyroidism. It is characterized by an increase in heart rate, increase in peristalsis resulting in diarrhea, elevation in body temperature (heat intolerance), hyperactivity, weight loss, and wide emotional swings.
Exophthalmia Bulging eyes; a characteristic of Graves' disease.
Iodine The synthesis of T3 and T4 requires this mineral?
Positive feedback A physiological control mechanism in which a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change.
Goiter An enlarged thyroid gland.
Parathyroid glands These glands lie along the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
Resorption _____________ is the process of dissolving bone and returning its minerals to the bloodstream.
Phosphaturic effect The excretion of phosphate by the kidneys.
Carpal spasm When the hand and wrist muscles contract and cannot relax.
Tetany Sustained skeletal muscle contraction. A deficiency of parathyroid hormone (PTH) that results in low plasma levels of calcium.
Laryngospasm Sustained contractions of the muscles of the larynx and the breathing muscles.
Hypocalcemia Deficient calcium in the blood.
Hypercalcemia Excessive calcium in the blood.
Hypercalciuria Excessive amount of calcium in the urine.
Adrenal glands A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
Adrenal medulla Where are the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine located?
Pheochromocytoma Benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes life-threatening high blood pressure.
Adrenal cortex Secretes three steroids: glucocorticoids (sugar), mineralocorticoids (salt), and sex hormones.
Steroids Lipid-soluble hormones made from cholesterol.
Addison's disease A deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. If untreated, the patient may develop life-threatening adrenal shock.
Cushing's syndrome Excess secretion of adrenal cortical hormones. Also present in patients who take steroids as a medication.
Pancreas A long slender organ that lies transversely across the upper abdomen, extending from the curve of the duodenum to the spleen. Functions as both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland.
islets of Langerhans The hormone-secreting cells of the pancreas. Alpha cells and beta cells.
Alpha cells Secrete glucagon
Beta cells Secrete insulin
Diabetes mellitus A deficiency of insulin. The deficiency affects carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.
Hyperglycemia Excess glucose in the blood.
Glucosuria or glycosuria Glucose in the urine.
Polyuria Excretion of a large volume of urine.
Polydipsia Excessive thirst
Polyphagia Excessive eating
Acidosis An excess of H+ in the blood
Fruity odor to the breath Incomplete breakdown of fatty acids causing the formation of acetone, a ketone body.
Metabolic syndrome A cluster of symptoms that occurs primarily in obese and sedentary persons. The signs and symptoms include insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, hypertension, and decreased "good" cholesterol.
Gonads Are the sex glands and refer to the ovaries and testes.
Thymus gland Which gland is found behind the sternum?
Pineal gland A cone-shaped gland located close to the thalamus in the brain. Called the body's "biological clock," controlling many of the biorhythms. It also secretes a hormone called melatonin.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) a mood disorder that affects people mostly during winter, when the daylight hours are short.
Prostaglandins Hormones derived from fatty acid. Produced by many tissues and generally act near their site of secretion.
Cytokines Excess adipose tissue acts as a gland---a very nasty gland---that secretes hormones called?
Gigantism Excess secretion of growth hormone in a child, usually caused by a pituitary tumor.
Hypoparathyroidism A patient presents with signs of hypocalcemia, high phosphorus, and low PTH.
Hyperparathyroidism The overproduction of the parathyroid hormone, causing the condition known as hypercalcemia.
Created by: Abraham321