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Nursing -Circulatory

A condition marked by a deficiency of RBC in blood Anemia
A medical instrument to listen to the heart or breathing Stethoscope
An instrument for measuring blood pressure Sphygmomanometer
Abnormally slow heart beat and rapid heart beat Slow - Bradycardia / rapid - tachycardia
Upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae vessels Right Atrium
Upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins Left Atrium
Valve with 3 cusps situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle Tricuspid Valve
Universal recipient AB positive
Universal donor O negative
Location of the production of blood cells Bone Marrow
Partition separating the 2 ventricle chambers Interventricular septum
Measures the electrical activity of the heart ECG
Artery that is generally used to take a pulse at the wrist Radial Artery
A large vein carrying deoxygenated blood from the upper area of the body into the heart Superior vena cava
A large vein carrying deoxygenated blood from the lower area of the body into the heart Inferior vena cava
Largest blood vessel of the human body Aorta
Smallest blood vessel where O2, CO2 and nutrients can be exchanged between the blood and body tissue Capillary
The fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules Capillary
A small branch of an artery leading into capillaries Arterioles
A very small vein especially one collecting blood from the capillaries Venules
A red protein responsible for transporting O2 in the blood Hemoglobin
The phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood Diastole
The phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries Systole
The pacemaker of the heart Sinoatrial Node
The muscular tissue of the heart Myocardium
To form a clot Coagulation
White blood cells / Red Blood cells Leukocytes / Erthrocytes
An escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel Hemorrhage
High BP Hypertension
Blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart Veins
Blood vessel that carries blood from the heart Arteries
Blood vessel that have valves Veins
The artery carrying blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation Pulmonary Artery
A vein carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart Pulmonary Vein
What is an excessive localised enlargement of an artery caused by a weakening of the artery wall Aneurysm
A medical condition in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced, causing the sufferer to bleed severely from even slight injury? Hemophilia
A heart attack Myocardial infarction
The bundle of HIS AV Bundle
A colourless cell that circulates in the blood and body fluids and is involved in the counteracting foreign substances and diesase Leukocytes
The sound of the heart Lubb Dubb
Average heart rate 70 BPM
Normal BP 120/80
The scientific study of plasma serum and other bodily fluids Serology
Mitral valve: valve with 2 cusps; situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle Bicuspid Valve
Valve with 3 cusps; situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle Tricuspid Valve
A substance on the surface of the RBC that elicits an immune response when transfused Antigen
A blood protein produces in response to and counteracting a specific antigen Antibodies
Parietal pericardium The paricardial sac, it is the pouch around the heart
Myocardium A very thick heart muscle layer
Arteries carry blood AWAY from the heart
Veins carry blood TOWARDS the heart
Allows blood to flow only from the atrium into the ventricle. Tricuspid Valve
Heart pumps how many liters of blood a day 2 liters
The two hollow chambers at the top of the heart are called Atria
The two hollow chambers at the bottom of the heart Ventricles
The ___________ is a thick muscular wall that runs down the middle of the heart. Septum
What are the 3 phases to the cardiac cycle? atrial systole, ventricular systole, and relaxation
What is Cardiac Output? is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart in one minute. The equation used to find cardiac output is: CO = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
Location of heart located just behind and slightly left of the breastbone.
Size of heart size of a fist
vena cava either of the two large veins that take oxygen depleted blood from the upper body and lower body and return it to the right atrium of the heart
artery an efferent blood vessel from the heart, conveying blood away from the heart regardless of oxygenation status
vein a blood vessel that transports blood from the capillaries back to the heart
arteriole one of the small branches of an artery, especially one that connects with capillaries
The blood supply that nourishes and oxygenates the myocardium is provided by the coronary arteries
When the left ventricle fails to pump blood into the aorta, two things happen - . blood backs up in the lungs and the heart is unable to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the systemic circulation. There is then what is known as backward failure and forward failure that occurs
CABG Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart. Used to treat people who have severe coronary heart disease (CHD), which a waxy substance called plaque (plak) builds up inside the coronary
The blood has 2 characteristics - its viscosity and its pH.
Rheumatic Fever is an infectious disease generally caused by Streptococcus bacterium
Platelets – are also called thrombocytes,
Plasma protiens – consist of albumin, various clotting factors, antibodies and help to regulate fluid volume, protect teh body from pathogens and prevent excessive blood loss in the event of an injury occurring.,
Leukocytes – protect the body from infection,
Serum – is the plasma minus the clotting proteins,
Thrombocytes – protect the body from bleeding,
White Blood cells – are also called leukocytes,
Red Blood Cells – are also erythrocytes,
Plasma – is a pale yellow fluid composed of water, proteins, ions, nutrients, gases and waste.,
Erythrocytes – are primarily involved in the transportation of oxygen to all body tissues
Atherosclerosis – A condition in which the fatty degenerative plaques of atheroma are accompanied by arterosclerosis; a narrowing and hardening of the vessels,
Sickle Cell Anaemia – A hereditary haemolytic anaemia seen most commonly in black people living in originating from the Caribbean Islands, Africa, Asia, teh Middle East and the Mediterranean. The red bloood cells are sickle shaped.,
Aneurysm – A local dilation of a blood vessal usually an artery,
Hypoprothrombinaemia – A deficiency of the prothrombin in the blood, leading to a tendency to bleed.,
Phlebotomy – The puncture of a vein for the withdrawal of blood,
Polycythemia – An abnormal increase in the the number of red blood cells within the blood,
Haemophilia – A condition characterised by impaired coagulability of the blood and a strong tendancy to bleed,
Embolus – A substance carried by the bloodstream until it causes an obstruction by blocking a blood vessel.,
Kernicterus – A condition of the newborn marked by severe neural symptoms, associated with high levels of bilirubin in the blood; it is a commonly a sequala of icterus gravis neonatorum,
Thrombocytopaenia – A reduction in the number of platelets in the blood that results in bleeding,
Phlebitis – inflammation of a vein, usually in the leg which tends to lead to the formation of a thrombus.,
Aplastic Anaemia – The bone marrow is unable to produce red blood cells. A rare condition of unknown cause inmost cases but it can arise from the administration of certain drugs,
Haemolytic Anaemia – a variety of anaemia in which there is excessive destruction of red blood cells caused by antibody formation in the blood,
Leukemia – A progessive , malignant disease of teh blood forming organs, marked by abnormal proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow,
Hyperbilirubinaemia – An excess of bilirubin in the blood,
Erythroblastosis – The presence of Erythroblasts in the blood,
Reticulocyte – A red blood cell that is not fully mature; it retains strands of nuclear material,
Icterus – A fatal form of jaundice occuring in pregnancy. Acute yellow atrophy. Haemolytic deaseas of the newborn,
Leukopaenia – A decreased number of white cells, usually granulocytes in the blood,
Arteriosclerosis – A gradual loss of elasticity in the walls of the arteries due to thickening and calcification
secreted by the juxtaglomerular apparatus cells; activates angiotensinogen – renin,
secreted by the walls of the heart; causes the renal excretion of sodium and water – brain natruretic peptide (BNP),
determines the membrane permeability of the collecting duct to water – antidiuretic hormone (ADH),
mineralocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex – aldosterone,
stimulates the distal tube to reabsorb sodium and excrete potassium – aldosterone
Pathway of the blood from the time it enters the heart as unoxygenated blood to the time it exits the heart as oxygenated blood through the heart and pulmonary circulation systems Vena cava - Inferior and Superior,  Right Atrium Tricuspid valve Right Ventricle,  Pulmonary Arteries Capillaries within the lungs Pulmonary veins,  Left Atrium,  Bicuspid or Mitral Valve, Aortic Semilunar valve,  Aorta, 
Korotkoff sounds – The sounds made by the flow of blood through the brachial artery and are heard through a stethoscope.,
Vasodilation – When the muscle relaxes, allowing the opening of the arteriole to increase and therefore decreases the resistance within the blood vessels,
Diastolic Pressure – The pressure in the large arteries when the ventricles of the heart are relaxing,
Vasoconstriction – The smooth muscle contracts, the opening of the arteriole decreases and the resistance within the blood vessels increases.,
Systole Pressure – The pressure in the arteries at the peak of the ventricular contraction,
Diffusion – Substances moving across the capillary wall from a high concentration to a lower concentration
What are the two most common causes of Left heart failure? Myocardial infarction and chronic hypertension
When the left ventricle fails to pump blood into the aorta, two things happen - blood backs up in the lungs and the heart is unable to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the systemic circulation. There is then what is known as backward failure and forward failure that occurs.
The process of blood cell formation is called hemopoisesis. Which three (3) types of blood cells re made in hemopoietic tissue Red Blood cells, White Blood cells and Platelets
Red bone marrow produces three different types of blood cells - What is the name of the cell that they originate from? Stem cells
Blood performs three general functions: transportation of substances around the body, regulation of fluids and electrolytes, acid-base balance and body temperature and helps protect the body from infection
The Hemocrit test (or packed cell volume) test is the percentage of blood cells in a sample of blood. 55% plasma and 45% blood cells
Hemoglobin consists of two parts: globin (protein) and hem, an iron containing substance.
What is CBC is a laboratory test that provides information about the composition of the blood. A CBC provides information about the normal range of the numbers of RBC's, WBC's and platelets.
Hemostasis is the process that stops bleeding. It involves three (3) events - blood vessel spasm, the formation of a platelet plug and blood clotting.
The Red Blood cell count in maintained through negative feedback control
The path that the blood follows from the right side of the heart to and through the lungs and back to the left side of the heart is called the pulmonary circulation.
Erythrocytes are the most numerous of the blood cells. How many million red blood cells are present in one microlitre of blood? 4.5 to 6 million
The heart is made up of three (3) layers or tissue. These layers are called what? Epicardium Endocardium Myocardium
The Sinoatrial (SA) node sets the rate of which the heart beats, or contracts and relaxes from its position in the upper posterior wall of the right atrium. It is called the pacemaker of the heart. How many cardiac impulses does it fire each minute? 60 to 100 times per minute
The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occurs during one heartbeat. Which one of the following are one of the stages within the cardiac cycle? Ventricular Systole Atrial systole Diastole
How much blood is pumped through an adult ventricle each minute? About 5 L per minute
What is LVH? Left ventricular hypertrophy
What happens during LVH? is enlargement and thickening (hypertrophy) of the walls of your heart's main pumping chamber (left ventricle).
Dangers of LVH The enlarged heart muscle loses elasticity and eventually may fail to pump with as much force as needed.
What happens to the shape of LV during LVH? As the workload increases, the muscle tissue in the chamber wall thickens, and sometimes the size of the chamber itself also increases.
What medical conditions is a result of LVH Left ventricular hypertrophy can develop in response to some factor — such as high blood pressure or a heart condition — that causes the left ventricle to work harder.
Created by: Abraham321