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Biology 158

TermDefinition
pathogen disease-causing agent
prion an infectious particle made of protein rather than DNA or RNA
sterilization effective means of killing pathogens using heat and pressure
photoheterotroph a type of bacterium that is photosynthetic, but also requires organic compounds for nutrition
spirillum a spiral shaped bacteria
flagellum a structure prokaryotes use to propel themselves
nitrogen fixation the process of converting nitrogen into a form that plants can use
binary fission bacteria may reproduce by this process
antibiotic compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria
conjugation how bacteria exchange genetic material
endospore protective capsule that can remain dormant until favorable conditions for growth arise
bacilli rod-shaped bacterium
prokaryotic single-celled type of microorganism that lacks a nucleus
cocci sphere-shaped bacterium
chemoautotroph organism that obtains energy directly from inorganic molecules
retrovirus virus that stores its genetic information as RNA
bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria
virus composed of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat, infectious organism that replicates itself in the cells of a host
lysis process of bursting cells
lytic type of viral infection in which the host cell bursts and is destroyed
lysogenic type of infection in which a host cell makes copies of the virus indefinitely
vaccine part of a virus that has been killed or attenuated used to prevent viral infection
capsid the outer protein coat of a virus
transcription constructing a mRNA molecule using a DNA molecule as a template; results in the transfer of genetic information to the mRNA
variant a variation of a particular strain of virus or infective agent; slightly different in form or function
messenger RNA used as the carrier of genetic codes and information directly from DNA to cell structures
mutation a rearrangement of genes or change in base pairs so they produce different effects within their environment
nucleic acid an organic compound made up of a phosphoric acid, a carbohydrate and a base of purine or pyrimidine; formed in helical chains
nucleus a cellular organelle that is the essential control mechanism for cell function; contains the DNA and genetic material
parasite an organism living in or on another organism that depends on its host for existence or support and gives nothing in return
genes a sequence of DNA or RNA that is located on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission of traits and function of other genetic material
hereditary material material responsible for the transmission of qualities from ancestor to descendant through genes
host a living organism, which provides subsistence or lodgment to a parasite
antibody proteins created in blood and tissue by the immune system to help neutralize and destroy possible threats
antigen a toxin or enzyme which stimulates reactions from a body's immune system
Created by: allinone