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Chapter 1 Intro to Nursing Theory

QuestionAnswer
What is Concept? an idea or complex mental image or abstractor of a phenomenon.
What are the 2 kinds of Concepts? 1) Abstract Concept and 2) Concrete Concept
What is Abstract Concept? they are dependent of time or place and are indirectly observable.
What is Concrete Concept? specific to time and place and are observable characteristics.
What is a Phenomena? are theoretical statements that specify the proposed relationship of the concepts of a theory; proposition statements of a theory w/c asserts what is proposed to be true and testable in the form of hypothesis.
What is Paradigm? a term used to denote the prevailing schema or approaches specific to the model.
What is Hypothesis? is a testable relationship statement, a shrewd guess or interface.
What is Assumption? is a statement that specifies the relationship or connection of factual concepts or phenomena.
What is theory? is an organized system of accepted knowledge that is composed of concepts, propositions, definitions and assumptions intended to explain a set of facts, event or phenomenon.
What is nursing? is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or human health problems.
What is Nursing Theory? is a group of interrelates concepts that are developed from various studies & disciplines & related experiences.
What are the four-levels of theories or the different types of theories? 1) descriptive theory/ factor-isolating theory 2) explanatory theory/ factor-relating theory 3) predictive theory/ situation-relating theory 4) prescriptive theory/ situation-producing theory
What is descriptive/ factor-isolating theory? the type of theory that identify & describe major concepts of phenomena however they do not explain the relationship of the concept. Main purpose is to present a phenomena base on the 5 senses together with their corresponding meanings.
What is explanatory/ factor-relating theory? the type of theory that present relationships among concepts and propostitions; explains the relationship of the theory.
What is predictive/ situation-relating theory? a theory that are achieved when the realtionships of concepts under a certain condition are able to describe future outcomes consistently; the kind of theory that is generated and tested using experimental research.
What is prescriptive/ situation-producing theory? a theory that deals with nursing actions and test the validity and certainty of a specific nursing interventions. This kind of theory is commonly used in testing new nursing interventions.
What are the characteristics of a Theory? can correlate concepts, must be logical, simpled but broad, source of hypothesis that can be tested, contribute in enriching the knowledge through studies, can be used by practitioners to direct/enhance practice, must be consistent but will leave open
What is Philosophy? it is the study of general & fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, truth, beauty, law, justice, validity, mind & language.
What are the branches of Philosophy? Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Political Philosophy, Aesthetics, Logic, Philosophy of Mind & Philosophy of Language.
What is Metaphysics? a branch of philosophy that investigates the nature of being and the world.
What is Epistemology? a branch of philosophy that is concerned w/ the nature & scope of knowledge & whether knowledge is possible among its central concerns, the relationship between belief & justification.
What is Ethics? a branch of philosophy that is also a moral philosophy. Concerned with questions of how persons ought to act or if such questions are answerable.
What is Political Philosophy? a branch of philosophy that is the study of govt & the relationship of individuals & communities to the state. Includes questions about justice, rights, law & obligations of citizens.
What is Aesthetics? a branch of philosophy that deals with beauty, art, enjoyment, sensory-emotional values, perception & matters of state & sentiment.
What is Logic? a branch of philosophy that deals with the patterns of thinking that lead from true premises to true conclusions, originally developed in ancient greece.
What is Philosophy of Mind? a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of mind & its relationship to the body & is typified by disputes between dualism & materialism.
What is Philosophy of Language? a branch of philosophy that is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins & usage of language.
What is a Study of Philosophy? the study deepens their understanding of themselves & society as well as widen their perspectives on the beliefs & values of others.
What is Phenomenon? it is any observable occurrence or any extraordinary event.
What is Scientific Method? are bodies of techniques for investigating phenomena acquiring new knowledge, or correcting & integrating previous knowledge. To be termed specific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable, empirical & measurable evidence subject to spec
What are the 2 Models/Frameworks? 1) Theoretical Models/Framework 2) Conceptual Models/Framework
What is Theoretical Model/framework? 1)models that are highly established set of concepts that are testable 2) it is a structure of concepts/theories w/c are pulled together as a map for the study.
What is Conceptual Model/framework? 1) models that are bodies of knowledge based on the own understanding/perception of a person or researcher on a certain topic of phenomena or theory 2) it is a structure of concepts w/c exist or tested in the literature, a ready made map for the study.
What is Science? 1) from latin word "scintia" meaning "knowledge" 2) refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method 3) organized body of knowledge gained through research
What are the 5 steps in Scientific Method? 1) Observation 2) Gathering information data 3) Forming Hypothesis 4) Experimental investigation 5) Conclusion/theoretical explanation
What is Observation? a step in scientific method that is the integration of knowledge &/or phenomenon by a rational/sentient being.
What is Gathering Information Data? a step in scientific method that is the recognition & collecting data for a particular scientific problem or inquiry.
What is Forming Hypothesis? a step in scientific method that attempts to explain or suggest a nature of a phenomena.
What is Experimental Investigation? a step in scientific method that is a set of examinations done to solve the particular query raised through the hypothesis process.
What is Conclusion/Theoretical Explanation? a step in scientific method that is a statement explaining a set of natural phenomena or a scientific query derived from experimental investigation.
What is Knowledge? an information, skills & expertise acquired by a person through various life experiences, or through informal/formal learning such as formal education, self-study vocational.
What are the 5 cognitive processes in acquiring knowledge? 1) Perception 2) Association 3) Learning 4) Reasoning 5) Communication
What is Perception? a process in acquiring knowledge that is achieving understanding of sensory data
What is Association? a process in acquiring knowledge by combining 2 or more concepts/ideas to form a new concept or for comparison.
What is Learning? a process in acquiring knowledge by the experience skills, information and values acquired.
What is Reasoning? a process in acquiring knowledge by mental process of seeking conclusions through reason.
What is Communication? a process in acquiring knowledge by transferring date from sender to receiver using different mediums or tools of communication.
What are the Sources of Knowledge? 1) Traditional knowledge 2) Authoritative knowledge 3) Scientific knowledge
What is Traditional knowledge? is a knowledge source from a nursing practice which is passed down from generation to generation.
What is Authoritative knowledge? a knowledge source that is from an idea by a person of authority w/c is perceived as true because of his/her expertise.
What is Scientific knowledge? a knowledge source which came from a scientific method through research. New ideas are fed & measured using objective criteria.
What are the advantages of the Traditional/Authoritative knowledge? Advantage: these knowledge sources are practical to implement
What are the DISadvantages of the Traditional/Authoritative knowledge? Disadvantages: 1) based on subjective data 2) limited use in a variety of practice setting 3) in nursing practice -scientific knowledge through evidence - based practice & research serves as each main focus.
What are the advantages of the Scientific knowledge? Advantages: 1) scientific & accurate, 2) theories it creates are less subjective than knowledge gained by other methods
What is the DISadvantage of gaining knowledge by Scientific? Disadvantagees: 1) requires time & effort to produce credible results.
What are the 2 kinds of Conceptual framework or models or paradigms? 1) Verbal Models 2) Schematic Models
What is Verbal Model? a kind of conceptual framework/model/paradigm that is a worded statement, a form closely related to knowledge development.
What is Schematic Model? a kind of conceptual framework/model or paradigm that explain an idea using symbols or physical visualization (like diagrams, drawings, pictures, graphs) that facilitates understanding. Example: General Systems Theory
Created by: mikay