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General Science M06

Apologia General Science, Module 06

QuestionAnswer
Catastrophism The view that most of earth's geological features are the result of large-scale catastrophes such as floods, volcanic eruptions, etc.
Uniformitarianism The view that most of earth's geological features are the result of slow, gradual processes that have been at work for millions or even billions of years.
Sediments Sand, silt, minerals and other components of soil (gravel, clay, etc.)
Humus The decayed remains of once-living creatures.
Sedimentary rock Rock formed by the hardening of sediments.
Igneous rock Rock formed by the solidification of molten rock.
Metamorphic rock Sedimentary or igneous rock that has undergone substantial change, generally as the result of heat or pressure.
Magma Molten rock that is underground.
Minerals Inorganic crystalline substances found naturally in the earth.
Lamination A layer of rock less than 1 centimeter thick.
Laminae Several lamination layers that are together.
Weathering The process by which rocks are broken down to form sediments.
Physical Weathering The process by which a rock is broken down without changing the chemical nature of the rock.
Chemical Weathering The process by which a rock is broken down by changing the chemical nature of the rock.
Erosion The process by which rock and soil are broken down and transported away.
Delta A typically fan-shaped area where a river deposits its sediments at its mouth.
Groundwater Water found underneath the surface of the earth.
Stalactite A sediment deposit resembling an icicle and hanging from the roof of a cave.
Stalagmite A sediment deposit resembling pillar and rising from the floor of a cave.
Column or Pillar When stalactites and stalagmites grow together.
Unconformity A surface of erosion that seperates one layer of rock from another.
Angular unconformity An unconformity between strata that are tilted relative to each other.
Discomformity An unconformity between two layers of sedimentary rock.
Noncomformity An unconformity between sedimentary rock and either igneous or metamorphic rock.
Paraconformity An unconformity for which there is no evidence but some geologists think should exist.
Intrusion Veins of igneous rock that shoot right through several layers of sedimentary rock.
Sills Veins of igneous rock that run in the same direction of the strata.
Dikes Veins running perpendicular to the strata.
Created by: cladnr