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chapter 13 a&p


What are hormones Chemical messengers released into the blood and are transported throughout the body
8 process controlled by hormones *Reproduction *Growth and development *mobilizing body defenses *maintain electrolyte balance of blood *Maintain nutrient balance of bllod *maintain water balance of blood *regulate cell metabolism thyroid *regulate energy balance partiel thyroid
Hormone chemical classifications *Non-steroidal (amino acid-based molecules) *Steroids (made from cholesterol
Target Cells/Target organs The cells/organs that hormones affect *hormones increase or decrease the rate of a normal metabolic process
Steroidal Hormones Hormone-receptor complex binds to specific sites on cell's DNA *Activates certain genes to transcribe mRNA
Nonsteroidal Hormones *Hormone binds to membrane receptor *Enzyme catalyzes reaction that produces a 2nd messenger molecule (Camp)
Hormonal Stimuls Other hormones encourage endocrine organs into action *The hormones made by the target glands increase and feed back and tell the glands to stop or slow down production
Humoral The blood levels of certain ions and nutrients that change stimulate hormone release as soon as the levels increase enough secretion stops
Neural Stimulus Nerve fibers stimulate hormone release *Sympathetic nervous systems (fight flight fright)
Endocrine Glands No Ducts! Ductless! rich blood supply
Exocrine Glands *HAVE ducts! *Release products at the body's surface or into body cavities through ducts
9 Major Endocrine Organs *pituitary gland:anterior pituitary is ENDOCRINE*Thyroid *Parathyroid *Adrenal *pineal *thymus ALL ENDOCRINE *Pancreases *Gonads *Hypothalamus are both endocrine and exocrine
. 5 Anterior Pituitary gland (glandular tissue) *Growth hormone GH: effect non endocrine targets *Prolactin: effect non endocrine targets breast milk *Thyrotropic: tropic hormone *Gonadotropic 2 hormones: tropic hormones
Tropic Hormones Stimulate their target organs (endocrine oragns) to secrete hormones which exerts their effects on other body organs and tissues
Anterior Pituitary hormones are Proteins *act as 2nd messenger system *regulated by hormonal stimuli (negative feedback
Growth Hormone functions *Growth of skeletal muscles and long bones *Cause amino acids to be built into proteins *stimulate most target cells to grow in size and divide *HELPS MAINTAIN BLOOD SUGAR
Prolactin (PRL) Targets breast in humans milk prodcution no know function in males similar to GH
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Regulates adrenal cortex (OUTSIDE) activity
Thyroid Stimulate Hormone (TSH) Influences growth and activity of thyroid gland
Gonadotropic hormones Regulates hormonal activity of Gonads *FEMALES Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing Hormone (LH) *MALES Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) LH= Interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ISCH)
Anterior Pituitary Gland = Master Endocrine Gland
Hypothalamus makes Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Posterior Pituitary Gland Stores Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Oxytocin *Released during childbirth and in nursing females *Stimulates contractions of uterus during child birth, during sexual relations, when breast feeding *Causes milk ejection (let-down reflex) when nursing *doesn't make the hormones it secretes
Antidiuretic hormone Inhibits or prevents production of urine *Causes kidneys to absorb more water from forming urine so urine volume decrease and blood volume increases *Diuretics (drugs) antagonize effects of ADH so flush water from body
Thyroid Gland *At base of throat inferior to adam's apple *2 lobes joined by an isthmus *makes thyroid hormone and calcitonin *is two iodine containing hormones Thyroxine Trilodothyronie T3
Calcitonin (Thyrocalcitonin) decreases levels of blood calcium causes calcium to be deposited in bones *antagonist to parathyroid hormone *released into blood when blood calcium increase *Theory production is meager or ceases in elderly
Parathyroid Gland On posterior thyroid gland *2 glands on each thyroid love 4 total * secrete parathyroid hormone=parathormone *regulates calcium levels in blood
adrenal cOrtex glandular tissue Outside
adrenal medulla neural tissue and INSIDE
Adrenal cortex produces 3 groups of steroid hormones *Mineralocorticoids *glucocorticoids *Sex hormones outside to inner MGS= maple grove sucks
Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone is made on the OUTERMOST layer *regulates salt content of blood *Regulate water and electrolyte balance in body fluids
Corticoids produced in middle layer *cortison & cortisol *control inflammation by decreasing edema *reduce pain by prostaglandins *glucose release in the blood
Cortison vs Cortisol Cortison= synthetic Cortisol = produced by body adrenals
Sex hormones Produced by innermost layer of cortex
Androgens male sex hormones
Estrogens Female sex hormones
adreneal= superrenal
addisons disease not enough secretion hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones *Problems with electrolyte and water balance *muscle weakness, shock
Signs of addisons disease Bronze skin tone * hypoglycemia *decreased ability to deal with stress * immune system suppression
Cushing's syndrome tumor in middle layer of adrenal cortex *hypersecretion of aldosterone
Signs of cushing's syndrome HTN *moon face *buffalo hump or fat on upper back *hyperglycemia and maybe DM *weak bones *depressed immune system
HTN= hyper tension high blood pressure
Adrenal medulla Nervous tissue (inside of adrenal gland)
catechoiamines help body deal with short term stressor *stimulated by sympathetic nervous system
Pancreatic islets Islets of langerhans endocrine part of pancreases eye lid *exocrine aspect of pancrease deals with digeston
Pancreatic islets hormones produced insulin and glucagon insulin decreases bp ONLY hormones that decreases blood glucose
increased blood glucose creates.. release of insulin from beta cells of islets
Diabetes Mellitus Dm Normal blood glucose= 80-120 mg/100 ml bld *cells cant use glucose so fats and proteins are broken down and used for energy which causes weight loss
3 Cardinal sighns of Dm *Polyuria-excessive urination *Polydipsia-excessive thirst *Polyphagia-excessive hunger
What are the two types of Dm Type 1= Juvenile onset=Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) Type 2= Adult onset = non insulin dependent diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) may need insulin oral diabetic diet & exercise
Glucagon Antagonizes insulin released by alpha cell of islets when glucose is low in blood
Hyperglycemia raises blood sugar Target organ is the liver
Pineal Gland Found in the third ventricle of brain secretes MELATONIN peaks at night so we get tired
Thymus gland posterior to sternm large in infants and children decreases in size throughout adulthood produces Thymosin
Female gonads ovaries produce female sex cell eggs/ova Produces estrogens and progesterone
Estrogen Secondary sex characterstics growth reprodutive orans hair in pubic and axilla Estrone and estradiol which is more common
Progesterone Prepares breast tissue for lactation
Placenta Hormone prodced nutrion delivery system for fetus Human chroionic gonadotropin made by embryo and fetal part of placenta
testes Suspeneded in scrotum produces androgens testosterone facial hair heavy bones stimulates male sex drive produces sperm
Created by: buch0127