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Bio 4U Exam

QuestionAnswer
Light dependent reaction produces.. ATP & NADPH
a measure of photosynthesis is the rate of.. Oxygen production
Energy in reaction center comes from.. absorbed photons
Photosystem 680 is also called.. Photosystem II
The source of electrons required by P680 is.. H20
Light-dependent reactions take place.. On the thylakoid membrane
ATP and NADPH power.. The calvin cycle
The Calvin cycle assimilates C02 with.. Ribulose biphosphate
Fixing Co2 requires the action of the enzyme.. Rubisco
RuBP combines with CO2 and then.. Breaks into two PGA compounds
1 molecule of glucose requires that the calvin cycle must be repeated.. 6 times
CAM plants and C4 plants both.. Separate CO2 fixing from the calvin cycle
Fixing C02 at night allows a plant to.. Close stomata to retain H2O at day
The process of breaking down molecules into smaller parts is called.. Catobolism
Anabolic pathways are different from catabolic pathways because.. They require energy
Energy is best defined as.. The ability to do work
The first law of thermodynamics states that.. Energy cannot be created or destroyed
The energy contained in a chemical bond is called the.. Enthalpy
Enthalpy is represented by the symbol.. G
Activation energy is.. Required to start a chemical reaction
When NAD+ is reduced it becomes.. NADH
Endergonic Reactions do not proceed spontaneously because.. The reactants have less free energy than the products
A compound is reduced if it.. gains an electron
Aerobic respiration requires.. Oxygen
Glycolysis does not involve.. Production of CO2
Krebs cycle, the acetyl-group from pyruvate combines with oxoloacetate to form.. Citrate
The mitochondrial inner membrane consists of.. proton pumps, ATP synthase, lipid bilayer, electron transport chain
FADH2 produces less ATP than NaDh because FaDh2.. electrons enter the transport chain at a later point
Fermentation is a strategy used by cells to.. oxidize NADH
Athletes that push their cells to use up O2 can produce more energy by producing.. Lactate
yeast growing in an anoxic environment can produce energy by producing.. Ethanol
At room temp, polyunsaturated lipids would form.. Oil
proteins have many functions, which function is not related.. Insulating against heat loss
What are the functions of proteins.. Transporting substances, regulating cellular processes, catalyzing chemical reactions & providing structural support
A dipeptide is.. Two amino acids combined together
Protein structure can be organized into how many levels.. 4
Three isomers of c6h12o6 are.. Galactose, Glucose- beta ring, and glucose- straight line
4 ways lipids contribute to human body.. Source of energy, energy storage, insulation, protection
The fatty acids of saturated fat have.. No double bonds
The monomer for starch is a.. Monosaccharaide
Which of these molecules is a disaccharide.. Sucrose
two isomers vary by.. Structural formula
Glucose & galactose bond to form.. Lactose
Which carbohydrate polymers is highly branched.. Glycogen
A triglyceride has three fatty acids connected to one.. Glycerol
Water is polar covalent this means that.. Electrons are shared equally, hydrogen is partially charged, oxygen is more electronegative, electrons are less attracted to the hydrogen nucleus
Intermolecular forces include.. Hydrogen bonds
A hydrophobic molecule.. Is non-polar
hydrophillic molecules have a tendency to.. Form aqueous solutions, dissolve in water, form hydrogen bonds, be polar
The monomer for a protein is a.. Amino acid
Which of the following is a monomer.. Fructose
What is an isomer of glucose.. Fructose
A disaccharide is formed by a covalent bond called a.. Glycosidic linkage
two isomers vary by.. Structural formula
Animal starch, glycogen is highly branched so that.. it is more quickly broken into monomers
How is cellulose different from starch.. provides structural support to cell wall
The fatty acids of a saturated fat have.. no double bonds
A triglyceride has 3 fatty acids connected to one.. glycerol
The triglyceride is formed by.. an ester linkage
At room temp, polyunsaturated lipids would form.. oil
Hydrogenation involves.. adding hydrogen atoms
Which of these statements is true for a phospholipid but not a triglyceride.. The molecule is polar and non-polar
Which of these hormones is also a lipid.. Testosterone
Denaturation of a protein.. is the result of extreme heat, is the result of exposure to a certain chemical, results in unfolding, results in inability to perform its function
A catalyst acts to.. Increase the rate of a reaction
A substrate is the.. reactant
Competitive inhibitors.. Combine with the active site of the enzyme
What molecule requires a protein channel to enter the cell.. Potassium ion
The golgi apparatus is responsible for.. Modification of lipids and proteins
the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for.. Synthesizing lipids
An electrochemical gradient is formed if.. ion concentration changes on one side of a membrane
The endoplasmic reticulum.. has ribosomes for making proteins
the chloroplast is responsible for photosynthesis, what term does not apply to this structure.. Matrix
Which structure is unique to the mitochondrion.. Cristae
What is the source of energy for secondary active transport.. an electrochemical gradient
The cell membrane consists of.. phospholipids, glycoproteins, glycolipids, carbohydrate chains
How is pinocytosis similar to phagocytosis.. both fold the cell membrane around matter
The hydrophobic interior of the cell membrane is created by.. phospholipid tails
A hypertonic solution outside a cell allows.. net water loss to the cell
Isotonic Same concentration of solutes
Hydrogen ions.. creates an electrochemical gradient
osmosis movement of water across a membrane
diffusion movement from a high concentration to a low concentration
How many amino acids are there, how many are essential.. 20, 8
How is a peptide bond formed.. it is formed by hydrolysis, its removes an OH from one amino acid and the H from another amino acid to form water. Only the carboxyl group is involved in this reaction.
Passive transport.. Requires no energy because the molecules move with the concentration gradient. Diffusion moves molecules from an area of high to low concentration to equal it out
Active transport.. Requires energy because it is moving molecules against the gradient.
the process of breaking down molecules into smaller parts is called.. Catabolism
What best illustrates kinetic energy.. a puck slides past a goalie
The concentrated charge in the intermembrane space leaves through.. ATP synthase
Free energy is.. energy available to do work
In metabolic pathways, activation energy is reduced by.. many enzymes
A phosphate group is added to glucose, this is called.. Phosphorylation
Glycolysis produces 2 ATP and,, 2 NADH
For one glucose molecule, the krebs cycle will produce.. 6 NADH
Oxidative Phosphorylation occurs.. At the inner membrane
The krebs cycle occurs.. In the mitochondrial matrix
Chargaffs rule is best described as.. All DNA exists in a specific ratio so that the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine
Which of these is unique to DNA.. Uracil
A nucleotide consists of.. a phosphate, a simple sugar and a nitrogenous base
Which of these is a purine.. guanine
Guanine and cytosine bind together with.. 3 hydrogen bonds
How is RNA different from DNA the sugar has OH attached to the number 2 carbon
What is a key characteristic of DNA Dna has a definite helical structure with nitrogenous bases towards the middle
What term best describes the basic unit of heredity.. Gene
What term describes the compacting of DNA Supercoiling
What term best describes the region of bacterial cell where DNA is found.. Nucleoid
What term best describes the circular DNA fragment in bacteria.. Plasmid
Nucleotides are combined together by.. Hydrogen bonds betwwen nitrogenous bases
Two strands of DNA are antiparrallel , this means.. Each strand has a different direction
DNA replication takes place.. During S phase
Dna replication is.. Semi conservative
Ozaki fragments form on the.. Lagging strand
The RNA primer is used to.. Act as a starting point for nucleotide addition
The DNA ligase is used to.. Bind ozaki fragments together
A possible mistake in replication is.. Strand slippage leading to addition/deletion, a mispairing, a permanent DNA altering mutation
A telomere is.. Repetitive end of a chromosome
making a new strand of dna is called.. Replication
During initiation.. helicase unwinds the dna
After termination there are two.. completed dna strands
The genetic codes interprets nucleotides.. in groups of 3
What is the start codon.. AUG
The genetic code is.. The same for almost all organisms, continuous, redundant, nearly universal
The redundancy of the genetic code helps to explain.. Silent mutations
If a mutation changes the codon for tyrosine to stop, the result is.. a nonsense mutation
The lac operon is activated by the presence of .. lactose
PCR is an automated system that.. Rapidly cycles temperature changes..
Another name for genetically modified organisms is.. Transgenic
What is the purpose of Dna supercoiling. Compacts dna so its not as long, dna would be nearly 2m long
Redundant.. Same protein code but different genetic code. How silent mutations are produced
Continuous.. continues until a stop codon is produced
Universal.. Almost all organisms have same protein code
What makes RNA different from DNA Rna is everywhere, dna is only in nucleus, Rna is unstable and dna is stable
In what three ways is mRNA modified before it can exit the nucleus.. All the T's get changed to U's, 5' cap and 3' poly tail is added to the ends, excise the introns
Protein structure.. Linear sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain, the structure is held together by covalent bonds such as peptide bonds.
Kinds of protein.. Structural, enzymatic, hormonal, defensive, storage, transport, Receptor, contractile
Synthesis.. The production of an organic compound in a living thing, aided by enzymes
Krebs cycle.. is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy
Eukaryotes.. are organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The most characteristic membrane bound structure is the nucleus
prokaryotes.. are organisms without a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. Most are unicellular, but some prokaryotes are multicellular.
Eukaryote vs prokaryote.. eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not.
Homestasis.. Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes
Created by: kylehooper