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Hydrosphere

QuestionAnswer
Adhesion – the tendency of water to stick to other substances
Buoyancy – the ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object that is immersed in the fluid
Cohesion – the attractive force between water molecules
Insoluble – not soluble; will not dissolve
Polarity – uneven distribution of charges across a molecule
Soluble – having the ability to be dissolved in another substance
Specific Heat – the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius; low specific heat means a substance will heat up quickly
Surface Tension – the force that acts on the particles at the surface of a material
Universal Solvent – the quality of water that makes it able to dissolve more substances than any other solvent can
Condensation – the process of warm air cooling as it rises and releasing moisture in the form of a liquid
Hydrosphere - the portion of the Earth that contains water; all the water on the earth
Impermeable - does not allow water to move through
Infiltration - water that seeps into rocks and between particles of soil
Percolation - the downward movement of water through pores and other spaces in soil due to gravity
Precipitation - the rain, snow, sleet or hail that falls from clouds onto the Earth’s land and oceans
Runoff - is precipitation that flows over land into streams and rivers. This water later enters oceans.
Transpiration - water vapor given off by plant photosynthesis via water vapor through the pores in the leaves (stomata)
Aquifer - an underground layer of rock or soil that holds water
Artesian Well - a well in which water rises because of pressure within aquifer from water above
Drought - a long period of scarce rainfall
Glaciers - a large mass of moving ice and snow on land
Hydrology - the study of water
Icecaps - a glacier forming on an extensive area of relatively level land and flowing outward from its center; ex. Greenland or Antarctica
Icebergs - a large floating mass of freshwater ice detached from a glacier
Reservoir - a man made lake that stores water for human use
River Basin - the region of land drained by a large river and its tributaries
Watershed - the land area that supplies water to a river system from smaller areas
Wetland - land area that is covered with a shallow layer of water during some or all of the year
Tides - the change in depth of the ocean due to the moon’s and sun’s gravitational pull of the water on earth
Tsunami - a seismic sea wave
Surface Current - a circulation or movement of water due to the winds; warm or cool
Deep Current - an underwater circulation or movement of water duet to changes in the water’s density (salinity; temperature);
Rip Current or Rip Tide - the quick movement of water offshore due to a break in an offshore sandbar; caused many swimmers to drown each year
Abiotic Factor the non-living factors of the environment that an organism lives in.
Abyssal Plain - mostly flat portion of ocean floor which provides a home to a variety of unique organisms that are adapted to the extreme conditions of this habitat.
Aphotic Zone or Deep Zone - lowest layer of the ocean, where light does not reach.
Benthos - organisms that live on or in the ocean floor.
Bioluminescence - the production of non-thermal light by creatures' converting chemical energy to light energy to lure prey, attract a mate, or assist in keeping like species together. An estimated 75 percent of benthic creatures glow
Consumer - feed on other organisms (plant or animal) because they cannot make their own food, a heterotroph
Continental Shelf - extends from the edge of the continent outward to where the bottom sharply drops off into a steep slope.
Continental Slope - the steep incline between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain.
Ecosystem - a community of different but interdependent species and their non-living environment.
Estuary - body of water where a river meets the ocean
Fauna - animals
Flora - plants
Food Chain - a hierarchy of food relationships from the simplest to most complex
Habitat - the immediate space where an animal or plant lives and has food, water and protection.
Intertidal Zone - the area that lies between the low-tide and the high-tide line.
Mid-Ocean Ridge - a chain of undersea mountains that circles the earth through every ocean at diverging tectonic plate boundaries
Nekton - free-swimming organisms whose movements are independent of the tides, currents, and waves.
Oceanic Zone - extends from 200 meters (656 feet) deep all the way down to the bottom of the ocean.
Photic Zone - the top layer of the ocean where sunlight penetrates, above 200 meters
Phytoplankton - the plant and algae component of the plankton; the primary producers of most ocean food webs.
Producer - a living thing that produces its own food within itself, usually by using sunlight energy in photosynthesis; an autotroph
Salinity - the amount of dissolved solids in seawater approximately 35 parts per thousand
Upwelling - the upward movement to the ocean surface of deeper, cold and usually nutrient-rich waters, especially along some shores, due to the offshore movement of surface waters
Echo sounder - a device used to determine depth by sound waves.
Fathom - a unit of measure for ocean depth. One fathom is 6 feet (1.83 meters).
Oceanography - the study and exploration of the world's ocean.
ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) - unmanned submersible tethered to a mother ship and operated by pilots using a joy stick.
Scuba - Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus - device that allows divers to breathe underwater for long periods of time.
SONAR - SOund NAvigationRanging - used to measure ocean depth by sending sound to bounce off the ocean floor.
Submersible - a small submarine used to explore the ocean depths; equipped with windows, lights, mechanical arms, cameras and other scientific instruments capable of seeing and recording data.
Evaporation – the process by which a liquid is changed into a vapor from the surface by gaining energy Groundwater - water located below Earth’s surface in aquifers
Ocean trench - the deepest parts of the ocean. The deepest one is the Marianas Trench (located in the South Pacific Ocean - almost 5 miles (8.05 kilometers) deep.
Neritic Zone - the first 200 meters (656 feet) of ocean water, which includes the seashore and most of the continental shelf.
Surface Water - water found on the surface of the Earth
Permeable - having pores or openings that allow water(or other liquids) to flow through them
Capillary Action – the process that moves water through a narrow porous space
Created by: Saba Aleem