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|What is the queens peace?
|Must be under queens peace - meaning that killing an enemy at war is not murder as it is not under the queens peace. In some circumstances death may be the result not of a positive act but an omission or failure to act. PITTWOOD. GIBBINS. STONE
|What is causation?
|Factual causation - D only found guilty if consequence wouldn't have happened 'but for' Ds conduct. WHITE. PAGETT.
|Legal causation - chain of causation between between act and the consequence which mustn't be broken. Operating and substantial cause or more than minimal CATO. Thin skull rule BLAUE. No us actus interveniences. WILLIAMS. ROBERTS. JORDAN. SMITH. CHESHIRE.