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Alfano's Science

independent variable (X axis) what you as the experimenter have control over. it's what is changed.
dependent variable (Y axis) what changes due to the independent variable
constant something that does not change in the experiment
control does not get the independent variable
hypothesis an educated guess, written as a "if...then...because..."
mass amount of matter, measured in g or mg with a balance
volume measure of space taken up, measured in mL or cm3 depending on tool used (ruler, graduated cylinder)
length measured in cm or mm with ruler
speed rate of change of position, or how fast something is going
formula for speed velocity=distance/time
acceleration how speed changes over time, positive acceleration is speeding up, negative is slowing down, zero acceleration is constant speed
gravity attraction between two objects (ex. earth and you) more mass=more gravity
friction is a force that resists motion between two touching surfaces, slows down motion
air resistance slows down objects with air
inertia objects want to stay in motion or at rest, need a force to overcome inertia
force a push or a pull, formula is Force equals Mass X Acceleration
balanced forces equal forces are acting upon the same object and cancel each other out
unbalanced forces cause motion of an object when two different forces are applied
Newton's 1st Law an object at rest stays at rest unless acted upon by a force
Newton's 2nd Law Force=Mass X Acceleration
Newton's 3rd Law for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
momentum mass X velocity, can increase, decrease and be transferred from one object to another
pressure force per unit of area (air pressure is higher on Earth and decreases with altitude, water pressure is higher as you go deeper)
buoyant force upward force of water
work transfer of energy as a result of force and motion, for work to be done force and motion must be in the same direction. Carrying something work is not done!
potential energy stored energy
kinetic energy energy in motion, moving
thermal energy heat energy
thermal equilibrium when 2 objects have the same temperature
conduction transfer of heat by two objects in physical contact, wood is a poor conductor, but metal is a great conductor.
convection heat carried by a moving liquid or gas, causes wind and ocean currents. Hot air goes up and cold air goes down.
radiation heat traveling across a space, does not need to be touching, (ex: sunlight, candies)
Law of conservation and energy energy can change from one form to another, and it can not be created or destroyed
conductor something that allows heat to pass through it easily
physical change a change that alters the form or appearance of a material, the material DOES NOT change into another substance
atom the smallest part of an element
protons are located in the nucleus of the atom, they have a positive charge, and have a mass of 1
neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom, they have NO charge (neutral), and have a mass of 1
electrons are located on the outside of the nucleus of an atom, they have a negative charge, and they have almost no mass
atomic number is the number of protons in the atom, it also tells how many electrons there are in an atom, and we can find atomic number of an atom on the periodic table
mass number (Atomic Mass) this tells us the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
energy levels the rings around the nucleus that holds the electrons
element substances made of only one kind of atom
periodic table organizes elements according to their atomic number and their behavior
metals located to the left of the stair step line on the periodic table. They have luster, magnetism, malleable, ductile, conductors, and have color.
nonmetals located to the right of the stair step line on the periodic table. They are dull, brittle, poor conductors, and are mostly gases.
metalloids located along the stair step line between metals and nonmetals
luster the ability to reflect light (this makes them shiny)
malleable the ability to attract (Some metals such as nickel and iron can be magnetized)
ductile to be stretched into a wire without breaking
conductor allow electricity and heat to flow through easily
brittle they break easily
compound two or more elements combined like water or salt
mixture elements and compounds combined
heterogeneous mixture unevenly mixed like ketchup
homogeneous mixture evenly mixed like salt water, also called a solution
separating mixtures distillation (boiling point), filtration, evaporation, centrifuging, magnetic separation
solute what is being dissolved in a solution
solvent liquid that you are dissolving in (ex: Kool Aid; powder is solute, water is solvent)
solubility how well something dissolves. To increase solubility: break up solute into smaller pieces, heat the solvent or stir
simple machine used to make work easier
wheel and axle simple machine consisting, in typical form, of a cylindrical drum to which a wheel concentric with the drum is firmly fastened: ropes are so applied that as one unwinds from the wheel, another rope is wound on to the drum
wedge piece of hard material with two principal faces meeting in a sharply acute angle, for raising, holding, or splitting objects by applying a pounding or driving force, as from a hammer
lever a simple machine that makes work easier for use; it involves moving a load around a pivot using a force
screw a threaded cylindrical pin or rod with a head at one end, engaging a threaded hole and used either as a fastener or as a simple machine for applying power, as in a clamp, jack
inclined plane one of the simple machines, a plane surface inclined to the horizon, or forming with a horizontal plane any angle but a right angle
compound machine combination of simple machines (bicycle, can opener)
excretion is the process of eliminating waste from the body. The four major organs of excretion are LUNGS, LIVER, SKIN, and KIDNEY
skin excretes excess water, salt and urea, which are called sweat. Sweat cools us off, helps regulate body temperature
kidney bean shaped organs that filter waste from the blood
liver acts as a filter for the blood. The liver removes amino acids (protein) not needed by the body. The excess amino acids are broken down to form urea that is excreted in the urine
lungs excrete carbon dioxide and water as waste
nutrient substance in food that provides materials for growth, repair (proteins, fats, carbs, vitamins, minerals and water)
carbohydrates long chains, sugar, starches, Glucose, Main source of energy
fats chains of fatty acids, digests in small intestines, large source of energy, eat in small amounts, bile breaks it down, can clog blood vessels
proteins made of amino acids, repairs tissues, found in meats, beans and nuts, digested in stomach
digestion breaks down food into form cells can use (mechanical; chewing/muscles chemical; using enzymes, acids)
mouth teeth, chew, tongue, salivary glands, amylase, digestion of carbohydrates begins
esophagus connects the mouth to the stomach, peristaisis
stomach churns food, mixes with chemicals to digest problems, muscular organ, pepsin, HCL Acid
liver makes bile
gall bladder stores bile
enzyme speeds up chemical reactions
pancreas makes insulin and other juices which break down sugars and starches
small intestines villi, digestion is completed, absorption of nutrients into the blood, breaks down fats
large intestines absorbs excess water
rectum stores solid waste products
diffusion moving molecules from high to low
active transport moving materials from low to high
carrier/transport protein helps during active transport
osmosis diffusion of water
selectively permeable cell membrane has openings of certain sizes and allows materials in and out
circulatory system a transport system that consists of the heart, the blood, and the blood vessels
heart a muscular organ that pumps blood to our body cells
vein blood vessel that carries blood towards the heart
valve prevents the backflow of blood. keeps blood moving foreword!
septum wall of muscle that separates the left and the right side of the heart
artery blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart
capillaries blood vessels that connect arteries and veins. They have thin walls so that diffusion can occur.
pulse the regular throbbing of the arteries, caused by the successive contractions of the heart (May be felt at an artery and the wrist)
heart disease any disease that affects the heart
atherosclerosis the build up of fatty deposits in the arteries
hypertension high blood pressure
red blood cell carries oxygen to the body
white blood cell fight infections
platelet stops bleeding
plasma has nutrients, hormones, proteins
hemoglobin gives blood the red color
immunity protection against disease
antibody what the body makes in response to the antibody
antigen anything foreign to the body (pollen, bacteria, virus)
vaccine dead or weakened form of antigen that you get to make you immune without getting sick
communicable disease disease spread from one organism to another (virus: flu, bacteria: strep, fungus: athletes foot, protist: Lyme disease)
skeletal muscular system bones and muscles that support us, give us shape and allow us to move
periosteum living outer layer of bone
compact bone stores calcium and phosphorus
marrow in the center of bone red and yellow
spongy bone at the ends of bones, red marrow here
joint where bones come together, allow bones to move (gliding, ball and socket, fixed/immovable, pivot and hinge)
muscle used to move all parts of the body, muscle cells are called fibers
contract muscle gets shorter
relax muscle gets longer
skeletal muscle attached to bones, voluntary
smooth muscle digestive organs, blood vessels, involuntary
cardiac/heart in heart only. involuntary
cerebrum thinking, awareness, voluntary muscles, memory, gets info from senses. largest part, divided 2 parts
cerebellum balance and coordination of muscle movements
brainstem/medulla connects the brain to the spinal cord, involuntary muscles and actions, breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure
sensory neurons detects stimuli from the environment and sends the information to the brain. comes from the senses
motor neurons causes movement. goes from the brain to the muscles or glands to cause a reaction. AWAY from the brain
interneuron connects sensory and motor neurons. found in the brain or spinal cord
stimuli any change inside or outside your body that causes a response
reflex automatic response to potentially harmful stimuli (gagging, pulling hand away from hot stove) DOES NOT GO TO BRAIN
endocrine system a system that releases hormones from glands.
hormone are chemicals that travel through the blood stream to cause a response
respiratory system is the system that helps you breathe in and out so oxygen can be pumped through your body and carbon dioxide can be removed from the blood stream
alveoli tiny, thin walled air sacs in the lungs
asthma disorder where bronchial tubes constrict and it becomes hard to breathe
cellular respiration a process where cells use food and oxygen to make energy
fermentation respiration without oxygen
mitochondria site of cellular respiration
photosynthesis is a process that plants use sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to make food and oxygen
chloroplast site of photosynthesis
Created by: KRago
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