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Bio Standard 4

Molecular Biology

glucose simple sugar made during photosynthesis; C6H12O6
cellulose polysaccharide which makes up the cell wall of plants
glycogen polysaccharide that serves as storage in an animal cell
starch polysaccharide serving as storage in plant cells
insulin protein produced by the pancreas that allows glucose to cross the cell membrane and be broken down to create ATP
hemoglobin protein responsible for transporting oxygen
enzymes accelerates chemical reactions
phospholipids lipid which the major component of cell membranes; hydrophobic head and hydrophilic tails
steroids group of lipids including cholesterol and testosterone
DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid; double helix
RNA RiboNucleic Acid; single helix
carbohydrate organic molecule which provides quick energy
lipid organic molecule which functions to store long term energy, insulate, and cushion
protein organic molecule which has many functions; Contractile, Hormones, Enzymes, Antibodies, Transport, and Structure
nucleic acid organic molecule which stores genetic information
amino acids building block of proteins
nucleotides building block of nucleic acids; made of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base
nitrogen base Adenine & Thymine/Uricil Cytosine & Guanine the order of these bases makes each individual a little different because it makes different proteins
monosaccharide subunits of carbohydrates
protein synthesis making proteins through the processes of transcription and translation
enzymes protein which speeds up biologic reactions by lowering the activation energy of the reaction
substrate specific match to each enzyme (lock & key model)
pH and temperature affects the shape of enzymes (proteins)
photosynthesis process which requires energy, water, and carbon dioxide in order for autotrophs to synthesize sugar (food)
cellular respiration process which requires sugar for all organisms to release the energy molecule ATP
reactants of photosynthesis carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight
products of photosynthesis glucose and oxygen
reactants of cellular respiration glucose and oxygen
products of cellular respiration carbon dioxide, water, and ATP
aerobic respiration cellular respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen, thus producing a lot of ATP
anaerobic respiration / fermentation cellular respiration occurs without oxygen, thus carbon dioxide, a small amount of ATP, and either alcohol or lactic acid is produced
lactic acid fermentation anaerobic respiration which produces lactic acid as a by product
alcoholic fermentation anaerobic respiration which produces alcohol as a byproduct
mitochondria where cellular respiration takes place
chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place
energy (ATP) needed by all life to maintain homeostasis
Created by: colvardh