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Science 9 Final

TermDefinition
Democritus's Uncuttable Atom 1900's, first atomic model, round ball
Thomson Plum Pudding Model 1904, second atomic model, positive atoms contained evenly embedded electrons
Rutherford Model 1911, third atomic model, positive nucleus surrounded by empty space with electrons
Bohr Model 1913, fourth atomic model, electrons travel in fixed orbit around nucleus, which contains protons/neutrons
Electron Cloud Model Current atomic model, electrons surround proton/neutron nucleus and don't travel in a fixed orbit
Proton Positive subatomic particle
Electron Negative subatomic particle
Neutron Neutral subatomic particle
Charging By Contact The process of transferring charge by touching or rubbing
Charging By Induction The rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused by a nearby charged object
The Law of Conservation of Charge Charge can be neither created nor destroyed, only transferred
Electric Current The net movement of electric charges in a single direction
Voltage Difference Measured in volts (v), high voltage --> low voltage
Circuit A closed path that electric current follows
Resistance The tendency of a material to oppose the flow of electrons, changing electrical energy into thermal/light energy
Increased Resistance Temperature increase, wire length increase, wire thinness increase, nature of metal (natural high or low resistance)
Series Circuit A circuit with only one path for electrons
Parallel Circuit A circuit with more than one path for energy to flow
Closed Circuit A circuit with no breaks
Open Circuit A circuit with one or more breaks
Fuse A strip of metal that melts when a current becomes too high/hot
Circuit Breaker A piece of metal that bends when the current is too high, causing it to flip a switch and open the circuit
Magnetic Force Increases as magnets get closer and decreases as they get further away
Magnetic Domains Groups of atoms with aligned magnetic poles
Magnetic Force Flows... North-->south
Permanent Magnet Has lined up domains, can be removed of magnetic behavior if heated
Electromagnet A temporary magnet made by wrapping a wire coil carrying an electric current
Solenoid A single wire wrapped into a cylindrical wire coil
Electric Motor A device that changes electrical energy into mechanical energy
Electromagnet Induction The generation of a current by a changing mechanical field
Generator Uses electromagnet induction to transform mechanical energy into electrical energy
Atomic Number Tells position on table & number of protons (if neutral, also electrons)
Mass Number The total number of protons and neutrons
Valence Electrons Electrons in the outer shell
Created by: 2020mdavis