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Microbiology unit vocabulary

antibody Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.
antigen a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, most notably production of antigens
DNA a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses
host cell an organism that harbors a parasitic, a mutual, or a commensal symbiont
lymphocyte a form of small leukocyte with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system.
lysogenic cycle is one of two cycles of viral reproduction characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm.
lytic cycle The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane.
membranous something resembling membrane.
envelope made of protein and phospholipid membranes derived from the host cell.
mucous membrane epithelial tissue that secretes mucus and that lines many body cavities and tubular organs
nucleic acid core an outer protein coating or capsid
phagocytic white blood cell Phagocytes go to work when foreign invaders, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites, enter the body and activate the immune system's inflammatory response
primary line of defence physical and chemical barriers that are always ready and prepared to defend the body from infection. These include your skin, tears, mucus, cilia, stomach acid, urine flow, 'friendly' bacteria and white blood cells called neutrophils.
protein capsid the protein shell of a virus. consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called protomers.
RNA molecule with long chains of nucleotides. A nucleotide contains a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate.
secondary line of defence a sequence of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks these invaders
tertiary line of defense adaptive immune response
viral specificity A virus that infects specific host. like only plants, only animals, only fungus or only bacteria
white blood cell are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
aerobic respiration process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen.
antibiotic a medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
antiseptic relating to or denoting substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing microorganisms.
binary fission is a kind of asexual reproduction.
classification is a general process related to categorization
conjugation is the direct transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another bacterial cell.
disinfectant a chemical liquid that destroys bacteria.
ecological role Importance to ecosystem
fermentation metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, or alcohol.
motility ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process
mutate/mutation occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene.
photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water.
prokaryote unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus
resistant/resistance natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by destructive agents in its environment
Created by: 1587218344914283



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