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Biology 2 Final

What is the purpose of mitosis? The process of the cells nucleus and the DNA in it. It will result in identical diploid cells. The purpose is to replace worn out cells and for growth.
What is the purpose of meiosis? A process that divides a diploid cell into a haploid cell to form gametes (the sex cells)
When does mitosis occur? It occurs in all body cells except sperm and eggs. it occurs when more cells are needed.
When does meiosis occur? It occurs in sexually reproducing organisms to form the sperm and eggs.
What types of cells go through mitosis? How many chromosomes do they have? What is the number of chromosomes after cell division? Somatic cell go through mitosis. 46 chromosomes. They are the same number after division.
What types of cells go through meiosis? How many chromosomes do they have? What is the number of chromosomes after cell division? The germ cell goes through meiosis. They have 46 chromosomes to start and 23 after division.
How many chromosomes are in diploid cells? There are 46 chromosomes.
How many chromosomes are in haploid cells? There are 23 chromosomes.
Define Evolution. What is it? Evolution is the process of biological change the living organisms go through over time by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors
What are Darwin’s theories about development of a trait? Traits develop by Natural Selection in which organisms change over time as a result of changes in heritable physical or behavioral traits. Changes allow an organism to better adapt to its environment will help it survive and have more offspring.
What is variation? Variation is the difference in the physical traits of an individual from those of the other individuals in the same group it belongs to. These may make it better suited to it's environment.
What is adaptation? Adaptation is a feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment. Adaptations can lead to genetic change over time to increase survival rates.
What is the difference between variation and an adaptation An adaptation increases the chances of survival and variation is a slight difference in inherited physical traits.
Define fitness. What is it? Fitness is a measure of the ability to survive and reproduce (produce offspring) over its lifetime.
Define Artificial Selection. What is it? Choosing favorable traits and breeding plants and animals to produce desired traits.
Define Natural Selection. What is it? Process by which individuals with inherited beneficial adaptations produce more offspring than other idividuals.
How does Artificial Selection differ from Natural selection? Artificial Selection is a faster process determined by traits chosen by humans. Natural selection takes place over long periods of time and the selected adaptations are caused by the what is needed for that environment.
List the four main principles of the theory of natural selection AND define them? Variation: Overproduction: Adaptation: Descent with Modifications
Define the structure of Vestigial. Vestigial structures are left over body part that had a function in an early ancestor but is not needed over the course of evolution. The pelvic bone of a whale.
Define the structure of Homologous. Homologous Structures are features that are similar in structure (build) but appear in different organisms and have different functions. Human hands, bat wings, mole forelimbs
Define the structure of Analogous. Analogous Structures have similar functions but they are on organisms who are not related. Butterfly and bird wings. Both fly. Birds' wings have bones, butterfly do not.
Define convergent evolution. Evolution toward similar characteristics in different species in order to adapt to environment. Both birds and insects have wings because they need to fly.
Define divergent evolution. When closely related species from the same ancestor evolve in different directions and become more different because of different environments.
What is the importance of the Urey Miller experiment? Demonstrated that orgainc "life supporting molecules" could be made form inorganic materials and supported the idea of how molecules appeared on earth.
What is genotype? Ratio? genotype is the genetic make-up of an individual. It is a set of allelas an organism has for a particular trait. Punnett Squares determine Ratio - describes the number of times a genotype would appear. Determined with a test cross.
What is phenotype? Ratio Phenotype is The observable physical trait that results from the genotype. The ratio is the number of offspring that will have the particular traits. This can be determined with a test cross.
What is a Dihybrid cross? Ratio? Dihybrid is the genetic crossing that examines the inheritance of two different traits.
Explain what dominate traits are. When 2 different alleles (genes) are present the dominant one will be seen.
Explain what recessive traits are. Recessive traits will be seen only when two copies of the same recessive alleles (genes) present
What are the four different blood types? The 4 blood types are A, B, AB, and O
Colorblindness is sex-linked. What does that mean? The gene for colorblindness is only present on the X chromosome and is only present in males.
Where does protein synthesis take place? protein synthesis takes place in the ribosomes found inside the nucleus
Identify the 4 Nitrogen Bases for Double Strand of Deoxyribose sugar. Be able to match them up. (DNA) The 4 nitro bases for Double Strand of DNA are Thymine, cytosine, adenine, and guanine. T-A and C-G
Identify the 4 Nitrogen Bases for Single strand Ribose sugar. Be able to match them up. (RNA) The 4 nitro bases for Single Strand of RNA are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. WHAT IS THE MATCH UP???
What is DNA? deoxyribonucleic acid - molecule that stores genetic information in all orgainisms
What is RNA? ribosomal nucleic acid molecule that allows for transmission of genetic information and synthesis of protein
How are DNA and RNA different? DNA and RNA are different because one contains the sugar deoxyribose, RNA contains the sugar ribose, one is a single strand and is a double, Different Nitrogen Bases, D stores and transfers genetic info, R codes as a messenger for DNA
How are DNA and RNA similar. Both have sugars and nucleic acids.
Identify the base pairing rules for Replication? In replication of DNA, if one strand is know, the other strand is known. A pairs with T and C pairs with G. It makes an exact copy of the DNA.
Identify the base pairing rules for transcription? Transcription is the copying of DNA to make RNA. (3 types- mRNA, rRna, and tRna)
Identify and describe the different types of Mutations. Point Mutation- incorrect nucleotide is put into DNA during replication, if not fixed becomes a permanent change. Frameshift Mutations- addition of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence. Chromosomal Mutations- error in crossing over during meiosis
Replicate the following strand of DNA: AAACCCGCT Now transcribe the same strand of DNA *(know how to use the Codon-mRNA chart to determine the Amino Acids coded for by the DNA) What is it?
What is the basic unit of the nervous system? A neuron - special cell that stores information and carries messages from the nervous system to other body systems
Draw and label a neuron. see pg. 474/876 know the parts
Describe the direction a nerve impulse would move through a neuron. a nerve impulse travels from the inner cell membrane down to the end of an axon
How are impulses carried from one neuron to another? when the impulse reaches the end of the axon, the axon releases neurotransmitters into the synapse, a gap between the axon, and the impulse travels across to the next neuron.
What controls a reflex? reflex arcs in the spinal cord send
Why are reflexes beneficial to humans? yes, they allow us to react quickly especially to danger
Draw the brain- label (Cerebrum, Medulla Oblongata, Brain Stem, and Cerebellum) see pg. 482/888 know the parts
What organs make up the endocrine system? hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenal , pancreas, reproductive glands (which include the ovaries and testes)
What are the chemicals of the endocrine system? HORMONES released by glands into the blood
What is the purpose of the kidney’s to remove waste from the blood and form urine
What is Overproductions? Overproduction: producing more offspring than can survive resulting in competition for resources.
Created by: ericafarmer5



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