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Chapter 19

Fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balance

acidosis a decrease in the pH of the blood due to an accumulation of acids; may result from respiratory or metabolic disturbances
alkalosis an increase in the pH of the blood due to a loss of acid; may result from respiratory or metabolic disturbances
anion ion with negative charge
buffers mechanisms employed by the body to keep acids and bases in balance
cation ion with a positive charge
dehydration a fluid deficiency resulting form the loss of more water than sodium
edema accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces
electrolytes substances that break up electrically charged particles called ions when dissolved in water
extracellular fluid body fluid residing outside of cells
hypercalcemia an excessive concentration of calcium in the blood
hyperkalemia an excessive concentration of potassium in the blood
hypernatremia an excessive concentration of sodium in the blood
hypocalcemia abnormally low blood calcium
hypokalemia abnormally low blood potassium
hyponatremia abnormally low blood sodium
hypovolemia decreased blood volume
interstitial fluid fluid residing between cells inside tissues; a component of extracellular fluid
intracellular fluid body fluid residing inside of cells
transcellular fluid miscellaneous extracellular fluid that includes cerbrospinal fluid, synovial fluid in the joints, vitreous and aqueous humors of the eye, and digestive secretions
turgor elasticity of the skin
Created by: lindstromjPN110