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Chapter 14


afterload the forces that impede the flow of blood out of the heart
aortic valve heart valve that prevents back flow from the aorta to the left ventricle
apex pointed end of the heart; the location of the point of maximum impulse
atrioventricular node (AV) group of pacemaker cells in the interartial septum that relays impulses from the atria to the ventricles
atrium the upper chamber of each half of the heart
automaticity the unique ability of the cardiac muscle to contract without nervous stimulation
baroreceptors pressure sensors in the aorta and carotid arteries that detect changes in blood pressure; also called pressoreceptors
base broadest part of the heart; where the great vessels enter and leave
cardiac cycle the series of events that occur form the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next
cardiac output the amount of blood pumped by the heart in 1 minute
chemoreceptors sensors in the aortic arch, carotid arteries, and medulla that detect increases in levels of carbon dioxide, decreased levels of oxygen, and decreases in pH
coronary arteries vessels that deliver oxygenated blood to the myocardium
diastole the period of cardiac muscle relaxation
electrocardiogram (ECG) record of the electrical currents in the heart
endocardium the endothelial membrane that lines the chambers of the heart
epicardium the serous membrane on the surface of the myocardium
mediastinum space between the lungs and beneath the sternum
mitral valve the valve that regulates blood flow between the left atrium and left ventricle
myocardium the middle layer of the heart wall; composed of cardiac muscle
pericardial cavity space between the visceral and parietal layers of the serous pericardium that contains a small amount of serous fluid
pericardium the membranous fibroserous sac enclosing the heart and the bases of the great vessels
preload the amount of tension, or stretch, in the ventricular muscle just before it contracts
proprioceptors sensors in muscle and joints that signal the cardiac center of changes in physical activity
pulmonary valve heat valve that prevents the backflow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle
Purkinje fiber nerve-like processes that extend from the bundle branches to the ventricular myocardium; form the last part of the cardiac conduction system
rhythmicity term applied to the heart's ability to beat regularly
sinoatrial node (SA) the heart's primary pacemaker, where normal cardiac impulses arise
stroke volume the amount of blood ejected by the heart with each beat
systole contraction of the chambers of the heart
tricuspid valve the right atrioventricular valve, regulated flow between the right atrium and right ventricle
ventricles the two lower chambers of the heart
Created by: lindstromjPN110