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Adv. Bio Sem 2

Carbohydrate A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
Gene A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Enzyme A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Most enzymes are proteins.
Lipid Any of a group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water.
Nucleic Acid The base pairing of one strand of a nucleic acid to the complementary sequence on a strand from another nucleic acid molecule.
DNA A nucleic acid molecule, usually a double-stranded helix, in which each polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T)
Protein A biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure.
Amino Acid An organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino group. Amino acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides.
Cytosol The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.
Prokaryotic Cell A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles.
Eukaryotic Cell A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles.
Organelle Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells.
Chromosome A cellular structure consisting of one DNA molecule and associated protein molecules.
Active Transport The movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient, mediated by specific transport proteins and requiring an expenditure of energy.
Electrochemical Gradient The diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the concentration difference of an ion across a membrane (a chemical force) and the ion’s tendency to move relative to the membrane potential (an electrical force).
Hypertonic Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water.
Hypotonic Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water.
Isotonic Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, causes no net movement of water into or out of the cell.
Osmosis The diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Metabolism The totality of an organism’s chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways, which manage the material and energy resources of the organism.
Endergonic Reaction A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
Exergonic Reaction A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
Free Energy The portion of a biological system’s energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
Active Site The specific region of an enzyme that binds the substrate and that forms the pocket in which catalysis occurs.
Oxidation The complete or partial loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
Reduction The complete or partial addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction.
Electron Transport Chain A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons down a series of redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Chemiosmosis An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP.
Glycolysis A series of reactions that ultimately splits glucose into pyruvate.
Fermentation A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose (or other organic molecules) without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
Created by: Mr.Devine



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