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Microbes in Perspect

Chapter 2: Microbes in Perspective

TermDefinition
Archea The domain of living organisms that excludes the Bacteria and Eukarya
Bacteria The domain of living organisms that includes organisms not classified as Archaea or Eukarya
Binomial Nomenclature The method of naming that uses two names to refer to an organism
Plasma Membrane The phospholipid bilayers with proteins that surround the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm
Carl Woese developed the three domain system of taxonomy
Cell Membrane A thin bilayer of phospholipids and proteins that surrunds the prokaryotic cell cytoplasm
Cell Nucleus A membrane-enclosed organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains most of the cell’s genetic material
Chromosome A structure in the nucleoid or cell nucleus that carries hereditary information in the form of genes
Class A category of related organisms consisting of one or more orders
Cytoplasm The complex of chemicals and structures within a cell; in plant and animal cells excluding the nucleus
Darkfield Microscopy An optical system on the light microscope that scatters light such that the specimen appears white on a dark background
Domain The most inclusive taxonomic level of classification; consists of the Archea, Bacteria and Eukarya
Eukarya The taxonomic domain encompassing all eukaryotic organisms
Eukaryote An organism that contains a membrane-bound nucleus
Family A category of related organisms consisting of one or more orders
Fluorescence Microscopy An optical system on the light microscope that uses ultraviolet light to excite dye-containing objects to fluoresce
Genus a rank in the classification system of organisms composed of one or more species
Kingdom The second highest taxonomic rank below domain Eukarya that is divided into smaller groups called phyla
Light Microscope An instrument that uses visible light and a system of glass lenses to produce a magnified image of an object
Micrometer A unit of measurement equivalent to one millionth of a meter
Nanometer A unit of measurement equivalent to one billionth of a meter
Nucleoid The chromosomal region of a prokaryotic cell
Order A category of related organisms consisting of one or more families
Organelles Specialized compartments in eukaryotic cells that have a particular function
Phylum A category of related organisms consisting of one or more classes
Prokaryote A microorganism composed of single cells having a single chromosome but no cell nucleus or membrane-bound compartments
Ribosomes Organelles in the cytoplasm of cells that where proteins are made
Scanning Electron Microscope The type of electron microscope that allows electrons to scan across an object, generating an three-dimensional image of the object
Species The fundamental rank in the classification system of organisms
Taxonomy The science dealing with the systemized arrangements of related living things in categories
Three Domain System The classification scheme placing all living organisms intp one of three groupsabsed, in part, on ribosomal RNA sequences
Transmission Electron Microscope The type of electron microscope that allows electrons to pass through the object, resulting in a detailed view of the object’s structure
Ultrastructure The detailed structure of a cell, virus, or other object when viewed with the electron microscope
Created by: drmicro