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CNA Concepts/Vocab

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Fast 5 1) Knock, identify yourself (name and title), greet resident by name 2) Wash hands 3) Explain procedure 4) Pull curtain/door for privacy 5) After care, leave call light in reach, thank them, ask if anything else needed + announce that you are leaving
Medicare 65 or older; under 65 disabled + can't work
Medicare Part A Pays for hospital/skilled nursing/hospice/home health
Medicare Part B Doctor services + equipment
Medicare Part C Private health insurance
Medicare Part D Medications
Medicaid Low income or special circumstance; residents covered by this after 1st 100 days; run by both federal/state
ADL Activities of daily living
NAs do not insert/remove tubes, meds, sterile tech, Dr. orders, communicate medical info to resident/family
chain of command NAs > staff nurses > charge nurse > nursing supervisor > minimum data set coordinator > staff development coordinator > assistant dir of nursing > dir of nursing > medical dir > administrator
Qualities NAs should have patience, honesty, courtesy, tolerance, empathy, conscientious, dependability, enthusiasm, humbleness
5 rights of delegation Right task, right circumstance, right person, right direction/communication, right supervision/evaluation
nursing process ADPIE - Assess, Diagnose, Planning, Implementation, Evaluation
objective Based on what you see, smell, hear, feel; signs
subjective Resident or family reported; "symptoms"
orientation Resident's awareness of person, place, and time
visually impaired Knock/introduce yourself, orient with imaginary clock to explain position
defense mechanisms unconscious behaviors used to help a person cope with stress; denial, displacement, projection, rationalization, repression, regression
denial rejecting thought or feeling
displacement transferring feeling to something/someone less threatening
projection seeing feelings in others that are actually one's own
rationalization making excuses
repression blocking painful events/feelings
regression reverting back to past behavior
systolic pressure 100-150 mL of mercury; heart contracts, pushing blood to extremities
diastolic pressure 60-90 mL
systolic normal range 90 < x < 160
diastolic normal range 60 < x < 90
localized infection specific part of body infected
systemic infection pathogens entered and spread through bloodstream
chain of infection Pathogen, reservoir, point of exit, transmission mode, portal of entry, susceptible host
direct contact touching infected
indirect contact touching contaminated object
fomite contaminated object
catheters tubes inserted into urinary tract, skin, or body opening
tuberculosis airborne
flu, mumps droplets
hepatitis/HIV bloodborne
colitis inflammation of colon
sepsis blood infection
MDRO multi drug resistant organism
MRSA methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
CA-MRSA community associated methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
VRE vancomycin resistant enterococcus
C. diff spore-forming bacterium; overuse of antibiotics kills normal intestinal flora and allows this to grow
nosocomial infections originate from hospital
asepsis clean and disinfected
disinfections destroys pathogens only
sterilization destroys all microorganisms including spores
autoclave equipment that uses steam to sterilize
dyspaghia difficulty swallowing
aspiration inhaling foreign material into lungs
contractures permanent + painful shortening of a muscle/tendon/ligament
shock organs/tissues don't receive adequate blood
syncope fainting (SING-coh-pee)
hypoglycemia low blood glucose
epistaxis nosebleed
myocardial infarcation (MI) heart attack
diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) high blood sugar
seizures involuntary muscle contractions; several types on pg 137
TIA transient ischemic attack (partial blockage of blood vessel); warning sign of CVA
CVA cerebralvascular accident
angina pain in chest or arms caused by inadequate blood supply to heart
hemiplegia paralysis on one side
hemiparesis arm/leg numbness or weakness especially on one side
expressive aphasia slur/inability to speak
receptive aphasia inability to understand spoken/written words
emesis vomiting
perineal genitals/anal area
OBRA Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act; standardized training, staffing requirements, state registry, MDS, 75 training hours minimum
HIPAA Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act
Act 13 Mandated reporter
Act 14 state law; OBRA rules
Report all abuse within 2 hours
lateral lying on side
High Fowler's Position patient is sitting the most upright position possible. They are usually sitting 60 to 90 degrees in relation the lower body.
Semi-Fowler's Position patient is laying down in a supine ´╗┐position with his or her upper body 30 to 45 degrees in the air.
Low Fowler's Position bed is elevated 15 to 30 degrees. This position is optimal for patient rest.
logrolling push w/ shoulder + hip, moving person as unit
Sims' lying on left side w/ upper knee flexed towards chest; used for bowel movement procedures
integumentary system skin, hair, fingernails
If resident is inactive, these can result: pressure ulcers, constipation, blood clots, pneumonia, atrophy/contractures
foot drop weakness in feet and ankles interferes with flexion
orthotics splints, braces
AAROM active assisted range of motion
abduction moving away
adduction moving towards body
extension straightening
flexion bending body part
dorsiflexion bending backward
plantarflexion bending forward
baseline initial value that can be compared to future measurements; usually vital signs, weight, cognitive functions
edentulous no teeth
additive substance added to another substance e.g. Aveeno
edema swelling due to increased fluid in body
halitosis bad breath
gingivitis gum inflammation
pediculosis lice
dandruff dryness of scalp
parasomnias sleep disorders
somnambulism sleep walking
bruxism grinding/clenching teeth
sleep apnea disruption of breathing
decubitus ulcer pressure ulcer
colostomy opening into large intestine
peristalsis muscular contractions that push food
chyme semi-liquid substance
Anyone under tube feeding must be upright at least 30 degrees
pulse oximeter measures oxygen in blood and pulse rate
dialysis cleans body wastes that kidneys cannot remove
telemetry cardiac monitoring device
pneumothorax collection of air or gas in the chest or pleural space that causes part or all of a lung to collapse
hemothorax presence of blood in the pleural space
empyema collection of pus in the space between the lung and the inner surface of the chest wall (pleural space)
total parenteral nutrition hyperalimentation, receives nutrients intravenously
Crohn's disease form of inflammatory bowel disease, causes digestive tract inflammation
ulcerative colitis inflammation of colon
diverticulosis disorder of intestinal wall of colon
diverticulitis inflammation inside sacs where stool/bacteria become trapped
flatulence excessive air in digestive tract
irritable bowel syndrome chronic condition of colon; relieved by Sims' position and supine
enema specific amount of fluid w/ or w/o an additive introduced into the colon to stimulate stool elimination
suppository medication given rectally
fecal impaction build up of dry feces in rectum
hemorrhoids enlarged veins in rectum
occult hidden blood detected by microscope/chemical test
ileostomy surgical opening at end of small intestine
Heart has 2 sets of atria (upper chambers) and ventricles (lower)
right atrium is where deoxygenated blood is received
deoxygenated blood comes from the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava
systole ventricles (lower chambers) contract; blood moves out of these chambers and into arteries
diastole ventricles (lower chambers) relax and fill again
erythrocytes red blood cells
thrombosis clots of platelets (thrombocytes)
leukocytes white blood cells
hypertension high blood pressure (140/90 or higher); hardening/narrowing of blood vessels
occlusion obstruction of blood vessel
ischemia lack of blood supply
coronary artery disease arteries become damaged, building up plaque and narrowing arteries
myocardial ischemia heart muscle does not receive enough blood
angina pectoris chest pain, pressure, discomfort
stable angina chest pain that occurs w/ activity/stress
unstable angina chest pain that occurs @ rest
myocardial infarction all/part of blood flow blocked and cells begin to die
peripheral vascular disease blood supply to extremities decreased
phlebitis inflammation of veins in lower extremities
congestive heart failure when 1 or both sides of heart stop pumping effectively
orthopnea shortness of breath (dyspnea) that occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair
hypoxia condition in which body receives inadequate oxygen
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2 chronic diseases that are progressive (grow worse); emphysema and chronic bronchitis
chronic bronchitis inflammation of the lining of bronchi; acute is caused by infection
emphysema walls between alveoli become overstretched, air sacs weaken and break
bronchiectasis bronchi permanently dilated and damaged
chest percussion clapping the chest to help lungs drain
pneumonia inflammation of lungs; air sacs fill w/ liquid; rapid pulse, chest pain, fever, etc.
tuberculosis contagious disease, latent and disease
hemoptysis coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs
spirometer deep breathing device
nasal cannula set of 2 prongs which are placed into the nostrils and behind the ears
bursae tiny sacs of fluid that are located near joints
tendons strong bands that connect bones/cartilage, support joints
muscular dystrophy inherited, progressive disease that wastes away muscles
osteopenia pre-osteoporosis
osteoarthritis degenerative joint disease, cartilage erodes
rheumatoid arthritis affects synovial membrane; autoimmune
fibromylagia follows surgery/stress/infection, no absolute cause; chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure
bursitis bursae become inflamed
adduction of hip hip cannot be flexed more than 90 degrees
cerebrovascular accident blood supply blocked from brain
transient ischemic attack temporary loss of oxygen/blood to brain
hemianopsia decreased vision or blindness in half the visual field
Parkinson's disease neurons that produce dopamine begin to break down and die
multiple sclerosis loss of myelin, covering of nerves and spinal cord; cannot send clear messages from and to brain any more
cataract eyes foggy
glaucoma pressure in eye increases, damaging optic nerve
macular degeneration macula degenerates, vision lost
ocular prosthetic fake eye
otitis media infection in middle ear
Meniere's disease disorder of the inner ear
delirium disorganized thinking; problems with speech, decreased ability to move, hallucinations, etc.
Alzheimer's disease proteins build up in and around nerve cells, causing dementia
pituitary base of brain, attached to hypothalmus; controls other glands
thyroid below larynx; metabolism/growth
parathyroid 4 of them, produces hormones; vitamin D, calcium, and phosphates
thymus below thyroid
adrenals producing certain steroid hormones, including aldosterone and cortisol. Each gland also contains an inner adrenal medulla, which produces adrenaline and noradrenaline. Aldosterone controls blood pressure w/ potassium and sodium
pancreas behind stomach, insulin production
hypothyroidism body processes slow down bc antibodies attack thyroid
hyperthyroidism metabolism too fast
diabetes mellitus high blood sugar
diabetic ketoacidosis low blood sugar
sphincter opens/closes opening in body
micturition urination
metastasize to spread
Kegel exercise lean forward if issues w/ incontinence
chronic renal failure kidneys cannot effectively filter waste products
urinary retention bladder does not fully empty
Created by: NAStudy