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Biology FINAL

four groups of carbs carbs, lipids, protiens, nucliec acids
monemers of carbs monochacharides
monemers of lipids glycerol and faty acids
monemers of protiens amnio acids
monemers of nucleic acids nuclotides
iodine solution for starch, turns black if it is present
benedicts solution for simple sugar, turns orange if present
buriet for protiens, turns purple if it has protiens
green paper for lipids , is translucent if it is presnet
how do enzymes act as catalysts they speed up reactions and reduce the amount of activation energy required
mouth michanical digestion, silivary amylase breaks starch into smaller carbs
esophagus movement of food to stomach
stomach churns food, pepsin breaks protiens into smaller protiens
small intestine break down of all macromolecules into absorbale submits and absorption into the block or lacteal
large intestine recieves all undigested material water reasorbtion occurs here
how is food moved in the digestive tract perstalsis
protiens broken donw in the stomach pepsogen mixed with HCL makes pepsin that breaks up the protiens
how do nutirents get into the blood SI has villi that contian capilaries asorb small molecuels through diffusion
animal cells are eukaryotew, have cnetrolies for division, have membrane bound orgenelles
plant cells are eukaryoutes, has cell wall mad of cellose , has chloroplasts contains a large central vacolue, has membrane orglelles
bacterial cells are prokaryotic, has a wall made of peptinoglychen
characteritcs of a prokaryote lack a nucleus or membrane bound orgenells, small, contain nuclotidede region, plasmid, cell memebrane, cell wall, sometimes capsule
cahracteristics of eukaryotes have a nucleus and memberane orgenells, large
where is DNA in prokaryotes nucloid region
where is DNA in eukaryotes nucleus
cell wall in bacteria peptinoglycen
cell wall in plants cellulose
mitochondria provide energy, have a double matrix, inner- membrane of cristae, outer- membrane of matrix
lysomes break down food, bacgteria, and worn out cell parts, made of globes of enzymes
ribosomes where protein synthesis occurs, made of protiens and ribosomal RNA
how is bacteria clasifed coccus - sphere , bacillus - rod , sprial
purines adenine, glutmine
pyrmidnes cytosine, thymine
cytosine pairs with glutmine
adenine pairs with thymine
phases of cell cycle interphase, mitiosis
phases of interphase G1, s, G2
G1 cell growth, orgnelle replication
S DNA relpication occurs - exact copies of chrosomes
G2 final checks and preparation for mitosis
is interphase apart of mitiosis no it is thte time when the cell is not dividing, but preparing to divide
leading made in continious segments and goes from 5 to 3 prime
lagging made in segments and goes from 3 to 5 prime
okazki fragments peices that make up the lagging strand
DNA polymerase adds new complementary DNA nuclotides
human stomatic cell chrosome count 46
mitosis phases prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
prophase chrosomes condense, nuclear membrane disapears
metaphase spindle fibers go to th emiddle of the cell
anaphase spindle fibers seperate going to opposide poles
telophase nuclear membrane reapears producing two nuclei, clevage fruuow forms nd cytokenisis begins
cytokensis in plants no clevage furrow - a cell plate made of celluose forms between th etwo cells
cytokensis in animals cleavage furrow pinching it to split
cytokensis division of the cytoplasm into 2 new daughter cells
cancer cell an abnormal or uncontroled cell division where cells dont respond to cyclins for cell division
tumor suprsor genes normal genes that inhibit cell division by activating check point protiens
proto oncogenres normal genes that premote cell division
oncogenes proto oncogens become these when mutated and make cells divide weather they are ready or not
how does as cell know to make protien it gets a message from DNA
where does mRNA come from it is transcribed from DNA
transription process of copying a sequence of DNA into mRNA
where does trancription occur in the nucleus
translation the process of decoding mRNA into tRNA
wehre does trnaslation occur in the ribosomes
what starts transcribtion RNA polymerase and ogther protines bind to KNA strands
hydrolsis add a molecuoe of water to break a bond
dehydration synthesis lose a molecule of water to make a bond
introms spliced out
exons put together to make sequences
methyl-guanine cap added to the 5" of the mRNA
poly- A tail added to the 3" end of mRNA
what does a retrovirus like HIV do to convert RNA to DNA employ enzymes to reverse trancription and make DNA from RNA
frameshift mutation imbolves the insertion or deletion of a nuclotide in the DNA sequence, cause the most dammage,
what causes a frameshift mutation an insertion or deletion
point mutation involves the change of ONE nuclotide
what causes a point mutation substution
pathway a proteins take after made ribosome- ER- Golgi- vessicle- memberane
lytic the host cells enzymes replicate the viral DNA, new viruses are made and the cell bursts open and releases them to infect new cells
lysogenic the viral DNA incerts into cellular DNA and is copied when the cell repicates .
function of tRNA to bring the approtate amino acids as they bind to complementary condons to the protien
how does tRNA know where to go in a ribosome to begin/condinue translation antocodons on tRNA bind to its complementary mRNA codon at the ribosome
homologous chrosomes chrosomes similar in structure and carry the same types of genes
end product of meiosis 4 haploid cells
haploid 1/2 set of chrosomes, n
diploid full set of chrosomes, 2n
gametes reproductive cells that must be haploid for reproduction to run smothly
gamete to zygote 23 to 46
three thing that contribute to genetic varation crossing over, independent assortment, random fertilazation
when does crossing over occur prophase 1
when does independent assortment occur anaphase 1
when does random fertilization occcur after meiosis
crossing over when homologous chrososmes swap genetic info when they are tetrads, results in different ofspring
if you dont see a trait in F1 but appears in F2 what kind of trait is it ressive linked
antigens and antibodies for A blood A antigens, B antiboides
antigens and antibodies for B blood B antigens, A antibodies
antigens and antibodies for AB blood A and B antigens, no antibodies
antigens and antibodies for O blood no antigens, A and B antibodies
law of dominance
codominance where both alleles are expressed. EX: A blood crossed with B blood creates AB blood
multiple alleles
incomplete dominance the heterozygous condition results in a third blended party
what is the ratio for a dyhybrid cross of two parents with heterozygous alleles 9-3-3-1
autosomal dominant pedigree there is a person who has the trait in every generation and pops up alot
autosomal ressive pedigree the trait can skip generations
sex linked pedigree typically effects one gender more than the other
natural selection he process in which ogranism adapt to their environment and tned to seuvive and produse more offspring
in the moth population what was the evironmental change the color of the threes
in the moth populaion what was the selecting agent the birds that ate the moths
directional selection occurs when selection favors one extreme trait and the intermdiate trait and excludes an extreme
disruuptive seletion occurs when the slelection favors the two extremes over the intermdiate trait that results in two groups
stablizing selection occurs when selection favors the intermidaite trait value over the extremes
hardy weinburg principle that describes a hypothetical situation where there is no change in the gene pool
p2 homozygous dominant genotype
q2 homozygous ressive genotype
2pq heterogygous genotype
p dominant allele frequency
q ressive allele frequency
if the calucated chi-square is above the cirtical value waht do you do reject the null hypothesis
which patter of viral replication causes more harm lytic
Created by: ella27



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