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Biology 1

final revew

occurs in nature natural selection
causes a change in the DNA gametes mutagen
causes birth defects teratogen
causes cancer carcinogen
likelihood of trait, breeder decides to breed organism artificial selection
hybird offspring are what? not fertile
organisms naturally mate with each other and can produce fertile offspring species
Individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end. directional
Individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end stabilizing
Individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle disruptive
Caused by random changes in allele frequencies in small populations genetic drift
a change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population bottleneck
A situation in which allele frequencies change as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population founder effect
Populations in different islands adapt to local environments changes in the gene pool
Two new species living together on an island compete for seeds Competition and Continued Evolution
A few finches from South America arrive on the Galapagos Islands Founders Arrive
Finches choose mates carefully, preferring a mate with a beak close in size to their own Behavioral Isolation
Finches on neighboring islands are unlikely to have contact with each other Geographic Isolation
occurs when two species can no longer interbreed reproductive
occurs when two populations develop different courtship rituals behavioral
occurs when two populations are separated by rivers, mountains or large bodies of water geographic
occurs when two species reproduce at different times temporal
A species that is easily recognizable, existed for a relatively short period of time, and covered a wide geographic area may be used as a(n) index fossil
species that have died out extinct
layers of rock fossils are typically found in sedimentary
scientists who study fossils paleontologists
total collection of fossils on earth fossil record
distinctive fossils used to establish and date ages of rock layers index fossil
a technique for determining the actual age of a fossil radiometric dating
the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay half life
Paleogene Cenozoic
Jurassic Mesozoic
Permian Paleozoic
The rate of speciation in a clade must be equal to or greater than the rate of extinction in order for a clade to survive. true
Immediately after a mass extinction biodiversity is dramatically reduced
The process in which a single species or a small group of species evolves into diverse forms that live in different ways is called adaptive radiation.
The process by which unrelated organisms come to resemble one another is convergent radiation
What contributed to the adaptive radiation of mammals? the extinction of most dinosaurs
An example of convergent evolution? sharks fin and dolphins limb
Which gas is most abundant in Earth’s atmosphere today? nitrogen
Which gas was probably most abundant in the early atmosphere? water vapor
Where did the water in the Earth’s oceans probably come from? water vapor from volcanoes
Earth’s early atmosphere contained little or no oxygen
In their experiment that modeled conditions on ancient Earth, Miller and Urey used electric sparks to simulate lightning
Outlines of ancient cells that are preserved well enough to identify them as prokaryotes are microfossils
Color or pattern resembles background environment of the organism cryptic coloration
Changing color to match the environment camoflague/color change?
Body shape resembles something in the environment hide in plain sight
Striking coloration that warns off other animals, used as a threat warning coloration
Non-dangerous organism develops color or pattern of a more dangerous organism mimicry
evolution Change of the allelic frequency in a gene pool over time
All of the genes in a breeding population gene pool
What does natural selection act on? Acts upon phenotypic variation present in the population
The frequency of alleles within a gene pool change by a chance event rather than by natural selection genetic drift
What types of populations are usually most effected by genetic drift? small
Allele frequencies change as the result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population founder effect
Change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population bottleneck effect
What causes evolution to occur? Genetic variations caused by DNA mutations and new gene combinations
species are able to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
What is the first thing that must happen in order for a new species to develop? Reproductive isolation
three types of isolation lead to reproduction isolation Geographical Isolation Behavioral isolation Temporal isolation
When sexual receptiveness of two species occurs at different times they are not likely to mate temporal isolation
when two species are physically separated by a natural barrier of some sort such as a river, mountain, ocean, construction of new road geographic isolation
The courting rituals of two species has diverged behavioral isolation
What was the early Earth’s atmosphere like? Hot, volcanic, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen, ammonia, methane, no oceans as it was too hot for water to be in liquid form.
simple anaerobes, photosynthesis, aerobic organisms, eukaryotes, and multi-celled sea-life the Precambrian Time
marine life paleozoic era
age of reptiles mesozoic era
age of humans cenozoic era
sudden disappearance of many species at the same time usually due to drastic environmental changes mass extinction
Miller and Urey’s experiment reveal That, by reproducing the earth’s early environment as best they could, they were able to produce organic molecules such as amino acids, lactic acid, acetic acid, adenine, cytosine, uracil, and ATP out of inorganic molecules.
belief that living things could spring from non-living things spontaneous generation
ex of spontaneous generation meat produced maggots, mud produced eels, wheat and dirty rags produced mice
Francesco Redi’s experiment disproving spontaneous generation meat in two containers; one selaed did not not have maggots
Needham and Spallanzani’s experiment Needham boiled gravy; not sealed all way because thought needed air microbes grew
Louis Pasteur’s experiment swan-neck flask boiled broth never got contaminated; broke off swan-neck became contaminated
What is the theory of biogenesis? all living things come from other living things
selective permeable membranes, store and release energy, and are “cell-like” or proto-cells protenoid microspheres
What was the evidence and when do we know prokaryotes were on the earth? from 3.8 billion years ago.
Prokaryotic symbiosis led to eukaryotic cell organelles. endosymbiotic theory
meteorite impact hypothesis 65 mya a meteorite hit the earth causing a mass extinction that ended the age of the dinosaurs
What does mass extinction lead to? many open niches.
empty niches and usually evolve into? new adaptions
One species evolves into several different forms adaptive radiation/divergent evolution
when unrelated species adopt similar strategies to solve a similar problem convergent evolution
example of convergent evolution analogous structures
ex of convergent evolution homologous structures
human arm, dog foreleg, bat wing and whale fin homologous structures
Same structure; different function homologous structures
different underlying structure; same function analogous structures
bird, fish, the icthyosauous, whale, shark, and penguin analogous structures
the living thing evolve at a slow and steady rate L/; Darwin gradualism
evolution occurs in spurts followed by long periods of equilibrium punctuated equilibrium
Human-like organisms that walk on two feet, eat plants and animals, and have relatively large brains compare to their body hominid
What is the first known species that led to today’s Homo sapiens sapiens (that’s us) after the split with the chimpanzees?? Ardipithecus
What are the 3 domains of life? Archaea Bacteria Eukarya
What is the Archaea kingdom called and what are the characteristics of the organisms in this kingdom? Archaebacteria, rokaryotic, unicellular organisms live in extreme conditions( thermophiles, halophiles, methagones)
What is the name of the kingdom under the Bacteria domain and what are their characteristics? Eubacteria; prokaryotic, unicellular organisms; autotrophic or heterotrophic; live in niches reproduce binary fission
What are the Eukarya kingdoms? Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
What are the characteristics of Protista (cell type, cell number, how they get their nourishment)? eukaryotic; mostly uni few multi; auto/ heterotrophic, grab bag
What are the characteristics of Fungi eukaryotic, mostly multicellular, non-motile; absorptive heterotrophs; decomposers
What are the characteristics of plants eukaryotic; multicellular; autotrophs; non motile
What are the characteristics of animals eukaryotic; multi; ingestive hetertrophs, motile
What are the three different way that bacteria can organize themselves? Strepto Staphylo Diplo
in groups of 2 diplo
in cluster Staphylo
in chains Strepto
What are the three different shapes of bacteria? Coccus Bacillus Spirilla
sphere shaped Coccus
spiral shaped Spirilla
rod shaped Bacillus
What would you call sphere shaped bacteria organized in a cluster? Staphylococcus
What are the 3 modes of movement for bacteria? Cilia, flagella, pseudopods. Cilia, flagella, pseudopods.
What kind of environmental conditions do bacteria favor? Moist, dark places of varying temperature.
What do you call an organism that requires oxygen to survive? Obligate aerobe
What do you call an organism that can not tolerate oxygen? Obligate anaerobe
What do you call an organism that prefers oxygen but can also tolerate atmospheric conditions where there is no oxygen? Facultative anaerobe
Organisms that live off of and harm their hosts parasites
Decomposers saprobes
autotrophs self-nourishers
heterotrophs Other feeders
3 types of Protists. Algal protists Fungal protists Protozoans
What disease does the protozoan, amoeba, cause? Dysentery
What disease does the protozoan, trypanosome, cause and what is its vector? Tsetse fly
Name 6 types of invertebrates Proifera Echinoderms Cniderian Arthropods Worms Mollusk
What are the characteristics of Proifera (sponges)? simple, asymmetrical, aquatic, have no tissues or organs and can regenerate
What are characteristics of Cnidarians? medusa (domed) and polyp, they also have tentacles and stinging cells
Name 3 general types of worms Flat worms Round worms Segmented worms
What are the characteristics of Mollusks? soft muscular bodies and some have shells
Name 3 types of Mollusks? Bivalves (oysters), Gastropods, Cephalopods
science of naming and grouping organisms taxonomy
Modern systematists try to group organisms based on evolutionary relationships
correct way to write scientific names in the binomial nomenclature system the first word is capitalized the second word is not capitalized both words are italicized
a two word naming system binomial nomenclature
the general term for a grouping in taxonomy taxa
the largest taxonomic category kingdom
between the kingdom and the class phylum
taxonomy kingdom phylum class order family genus species
human taxonomy Eukarya Animalia Chordate Mammilia Primates Homilade Homo Sapiens Homo Sapiens
A group that is limited to a common ancestor and all of its descendants monophyletic group
A specific trait that is used to construct a cladogram derived character
A branch of a cladogram that consists of a single common ancestor a clade
study of how living and extinct organisms are related to one another phylogeny
Unicelled organisms that lack nuclei and have cell walls made with peptidoglycan Eubacteria
paramecium Flagellum
Cilia sperm
Pseupods amoeba
What are the characteristics of Amphibians? Larva have gills Adults have lungs Ecothermic
What are the characteristics of reptiles? Dry scaly skin Ectothermic Lay shelled eggs
What are the characteristics of birds? Feathers and wings Endothermic Light skeleton Lay shelled eggs
characteristics of mammals? Hair or fur Endothermic Produce milk
carry offspring in pouches Marsupials
Monotremes lay eggs
placental live offspring
What is a controversial 7th kingdom Non-cellular viruses
Why was it necessary to classify all living things? To avoid confusion. Common names vary in different languages and place to place. Need consensus about the names of things.
How did Aristotle classify living things? either plants or animals
Who was John Ray and how did he propose to classify/name organisms? long detailed latin names
How many taxa did his original system have and how was it organized? 4 taxa originally; heiarchy
How many taxa are there today and what are they (ranging from most general to very specific)? 7
first word genus
second word species
What does the term “alternation of generations” refer to? 2 alternating phases: diploid and haploid
How has the period of time a plant spends in the gametophyte phase changed over the evolution of plants? gametophyte phase has shortened and the sporophyte phase had increased.
what is the term for the female reproductive organ where eggs are formed archegonia
both grasses and mosses are examples of plants true
chlorophyll a and b are located in chloroplasts true
plants require oxygen for cellular respiration true
bryophytes stay small because they lack vascular tissue true
the gameophyte is the dominant stage of bryophytes true
carries substances from roots to stems and leaves xylem
carries substances from leaves throughout the plant body phloem
encases the seeds of flowering plants fruits
seed plants that produce flowers and fruit angiosperm
corns, beans, and pine nuts seeds
attract animal pollinators flowers
the period when flowering plants first appeared Cretaceous
flower parts in multiples of 3 monocots
flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 dicots
fertilized egg in an ovule becomes the zygote of a new sporophyte true
structures that produce male gameophyte anthers
In ferns, what is the name of the organ that produces eggs? archegonia
Which species are all land plants thought to have evolved from? green algae
ovary becomes fruit
both male and female parts perfect flower
Seeds dispersed by animals are typically enclosed in fleshy, nutritious fruits
What kind of root does a monocot have? A fibrous root.
How long can embryonic plants stay dormant in its protective seed coating? From 10 to 1000 years
How are the veins of a monocot plant arranged? parallel to each other on the leaf
What is a gymnosperm? naked seed
What 3 conditions must be optimal for a seed to germinate? The amount of water, oxygen, and temperature.
the seed “sprouts'' germination
What do the terms “monocot” and “dicot” refer to? number of leaves within the seed
In seed plants, where is the male gametophyte contained? pollen grain
swollen underground stems used for storage tubers (ex; potatoes)
a plant embryo and food supply, encased in a protective covering seed
In seed plants, in what structures do the gametes develop cones or flowers
Flowering plants that bear their seeds in flowers inside a layer of tissue that protects the seeds. angiosperm
the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the female reproductive structures pollination
What is contained within a pollen grain? two sperm
Which part of the flower becomes the seed ovule
have small baby plants growing on the parent plant plantlets (ex kalanchoe)
An embryonic plant leaf within the seed cotyledon
creates a passage for the sperm to travel to fertilize the egg pollen tube
What part of the plant contains sperm? anther
What is the purpose of the seed coat? protection harsh environments
List different kinds of pollinators birds, beeds, mammals
In ferns, what is the name of the organ that produces sperm? antheridia
How are angiosperm seeds dispersed? wind, water, attaching to animals passing by
In moss, what is the term for the male reproductive organ where sperm are formed ? antheridium
sprout and grow short stems and maybe some leaves the first year and grows new stems, leaves, flowers, and seed before dying in the second year biennal
How are the veins of a dicot leaf arranged? branch out
carbohydrates and products of photosynthesis phloem
H20 and nutrients increase xylem
What are the structures found in a seed? What are the structures found in a seed? cotyledons, epicotyls, hypocotyls, radicles, and endosperm
What part of the plant develops from the epicotyl? cotyledon leaves and leaves
What is an imperfect flower? either a male or a female reproductive part of a plant
How are the vascular tissues in a monocot arranged? scattered; all throughout
source of food for the embryonic plant and during germination endosperm
How are the vascular tissues in a dicot arranged? arranged in a ring in the stem; around the edge
What kind of plant reproduction doesn’t require seeds? asexual
horizontal roots above the ground runners (es; strawberries + grass)
What kind of root does a dicot have? tap
If a plant had 12 petals, how can you tell if it is a monocot or dicot? determine how the veins run
List different adaptations of angiosperms that attract pollinators. Petals of different colors, nectar, oils, mimic mates,
thick button-shaped underground stem that store food Corms (ex bananas,gladiolus, begonias)
What are the 2 types of plant support systems? woody
water; turgor pressure non woody
What are the three main types of animal support systems? None Mineral support Skeletal support
What are the characteristics of a “none” or no skeletal support system? usually live in water, are slow moving
What are the 2 different types of skeletal support systems? Exoskeletons and endoskeletons
pain and stiffness caused by loss of cartilage oseoarthitis
rib cage axial
shoulders appendicular
What are exoskeleton composed of? Chitin & living tissue made of carbohydrate and proteins
What are 4 functions of the exoskeleton support improve movement protection prevent water loss
What are the disadvantages of having an exoskeleton limits the size of the adult must molt vulnerable after molting
What are the characteristics of an endoskeleton? What are they made of? living tissue made up of living cells and non-living minerals such as calcium and phosphorus; internal
What are the 6 functions of endoskeletons? support and maintain shape improves movements protect vital organs store minerals make blood cells store fat
build bone up osteoblasts
break down bone releasing minerals osteoclats
maintain bone health osteocytes
What type of bone is found on the exterior of bone? compact
What kind of bone is found at the ends of long bones? sponge bone
the process in which cartilage is replaced by bone ossification
supplies the energy needed for muscle contraction ATP
formed by thick filaments to allow filaments to slide past one another cross bridges
bundles of tightly packed protein filaments inside muscle fibers myofibrils
thick protein in muscle fibers myosin
thin protein filaments in muscle fibers actin
tough layer of connective tissue surrounding the bone periosteum
soft tissue in bone cavities that stores fat yellow marrow
produce red blood cells red marrow
shoulder and hip ball and socket
elbows, ankles, and knees hinge
multiple nuclei, voluntary, striated skeletal muscle
spindle shaped, non-striated, involuntary, 1 nuclei smooth muscle
involuntary, striated, 1+ nuclei cardiac muscle
connected to each other by gap junctions cardiac muscle
between skull bones immovable
synovial joits freely movable
ulna/ radius pivot
knuckles epilloical
thumb saddie
state the sliding filament theory 1. releases the neuro transmitter Ach 2. causes muscle to release calcium 3. exposes biding site on actin 4. actin + myosin form a cross bridge 5. Bowerstrokes to bring Z lines closer together
ligaments bone to bone
skin, hair, nails Integumentry
function of integumentry prevent dehydration, protection, relax waste, regulates, vitamin D
Where is the red bone marrow found? spongy bone
What is the function of melanin? protect the skin by absorbing UV rays form the sun.
Where are melanocytes found? epidermis
What type of muscle contracts rapidly and generates a lot of force quickly? white muscle
What is the largest organ in your body? skin
What do sebaceous glands produce? sebum
What is the composition of an endoskeleton? living cells, collagen contain minerals, Bone, cartilage, and connective tissues.
wear and tear of cartilage osteoarthritis
What is cartilage and what purpose does it serve? tough connective tissue that is found between bones; It cushions, creates a frictionless environment, during movement
What are tendons? muscle to bone
What is the name of the contracting unit of muscle? sacromere
thick filaments myosin
What are the 3 main layers of skin? Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis
What are the differences between the 2 basic layers of the epidermis? upper: of dead cells filled with keratin. lower; maturing cells.
contains hair follicles, sweat glands, oil glands, sensory receptors, ? the dermis
What is the function of keratin in hair? keep supple and moist; in nails too
Infection or inflammation of the hair follicles. acne
Red welts hives
abnormal growth of skin cells often due to UV radiation skin cancer
amount of heat needed to lower the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius calorie
The most important nutrient water
May be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides carbohydrates
May be saturated or unsaturated fats
Polymers of amino acids proteins
May be fat-soluble or water-soluble vitamins
Required to produce the compound that makes up bones and teeth minerals
the nutrient lost through sweat, urine and exhaled breath water
the nutrient lost through sweat, urine and exhaled breath make stronger
when a person stops growing or becomes less active, nutrient needs decrease
the study of food and its effect on the body nutrition
Where does chemical digestion begin? mouth
Saliva eases the passage of food through the digestive system and contains amylase
Which is the correct order of passage of food through the digestive system? mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Which of the following is not a role of the pancreas? produces bile
Physical digestion or breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces is called mechanical digestion
Breaks down starches into disaccharides salivary amylase
starch carbohydrates
The last part of the large intestine, it releases wastes out of the body rectum
The primary function of the large intestine absorb water
Absorb the products of carbohydrate and protein digestion in the villi capillaries
Continues the breakdown of protein in the small intestine trypsin
products into the blood or lymph absorption
moving foods propulsion
Nutrients are absorbed through active transport
where fat digestions begins small intestine
What are food components? Nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, nucleic acids), minerals and vitamins.
What are the 4 main organic nutrients? Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Nucleic Acids
What do proteins get broken down into and how does the body use them? amino acids that aid in metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, transporting molecules, and cell structures in the stomach
What do fats get broken down into ? glycerol and fatty acids
inorganic molecules that perform vital functions minerals
Breaks down fat lipase
causes muscle fibers to lock in continuous contraction tetanus
wasting away of skeletal muscles muscle dystrophy
Absorb fats and fatty acids lymph vessels
What is the purpose of the excretory system? remove metabolic wastes from the body and maintain homeostasis
What organs are involved in the excretory system? The skin, lungs, liver, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
How does the skin help remove waste? sweating
How do the lungs excrete wastes? carbon dioxide, a waste of cellular respiration is released when breathing
What does the kidney do? filtering process, the kidneys remove excess water, urea and metabolic wastes from the blood
outer portion Cortex
inner sections medulla
dip in oval structure pelvis
dirty blood enters renal artery
clean blood exists renal vein
actual filtering unit of the kidney nephron
How does the nephron filter blood? Filtration Reabsorption Secretion
Filtration of blood mainly occurs in the glomerulus
solution of water, glucose, amino acids, urea, minerals, forced into Bowman's capsule filtrate
How much blood is filtered in a day? filter 189 L of blood per day. About 99% of the filtrate is reabsorbed. excrete about 1 – 2 L
blood cleaning process is done artificially through the process of “dialysis” until a new kidney can be transplanted kidney dialysis
pumps to the lungs Pulmonary Circulation
delivers oxygen to the cells of the body Systemic Circulation
carry blood away from the heart arteries
carry blood toward the heart veins
the site of gas exchange with cells capillaries
What is the function of the circulatory system? To transport nutrients, hormones, metabolic waste and gases throughout the body
What structures are part of the circulatory system? The heart, the blood vessels and blood
What are the name of the upper heart chambers that receive blood? right atrium receives poor-blood from body left atrium receive oxygen rich blood from lungs
What are the name of the upper heart chambers that receive blood? right ventricle poor from lungs left; rich blood from body tissues
veins attach to atriums
arteries attach to ventricles
What are the 5 kinds of blood vessels? Artery, arteriole, capillaries, venule, and vein
veins are thinner and have valves arteries are thick and diameters are smaller
What is the name of the largest artery and where is it found? aorta
What is the name of the largest vein and where is it found? superior and inferior vena cava
Which of the 2 circulatory systems is largest, the pulmonary or the systemic circuit? systemic
What structure in the heart keeps the oxygen-poor blood on the right side from mixing with the oxygen-rich blood found on the left side? septum
What is the name of the bunch of nervous tissue that controls the heartbeat and where is it found? SA node
What do the 2 numbers of the blood pressure ratio mean? systole/diastole
What are the functions of the lymphatic system? Return fluids back to the circulatory system Filter out bacteria, foreign materials, toxins in lymph Transport proteins back to blood Produce antibodies to fight bacteria Absorbs fat from the intestine and transport to liver
What are the organs of the lymphatic system? thymus, liver, spleen, tonsils, bone marrow and a series of lymph vessels and nodes.
red blood cells carry oxygen
white blood cells immune system
Platelets clotting
red blood cells are bags of hemaglobin
broken off fragments of macrophage cytoplasm involved in clotting platelets
10 million per mL white blood cells
5 billion per mL red blood cells
400 million per mL platelets
What does thromboplastin convert prothrombin into? thrombin
What does thrombin convert fibrinogen into? fibrin
sticky protein that forms a network of fibers that are the basis of a clot fibrin
What are the 3 basic steps for blood clotting? 1. break in capillary 2. platelets clump at site and release thromboplastin which converts prothrombin to thrombin 3. clot forms when thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin
How are blood types determined? The antigen that is present
Which blood type can receive blood from anybody – aka the universal recipient? type AB
What blood type can donate to any other blood group? type O
Why is the Rh factor important when a woman is Rh negative? develops antibodies against the RH factor of her baby if no shot of rhogam to suppress antibodies could harm baby
lack of oxygen typically due to a deficiency of red blood cells or low iron anemia
cancer of the white blood cells leukemia
X-linked recessive genetic disease that results in poor clotting of blood hemophilia
kissing disease mononucleosis
viral infection that disables the helper T-cells of the immune system AIDS
a hardening of the arteries ; loss elasticity arteriosclerosis
produced by the hosts B cells and each is made for a specific foreign antigen antibodies
foreign invade ; triggers an immune response antigen
How do vaccines work? a small amount or less dangerous form of a pathogen to a person and then let that person’s immune system formulate an antibody against it memory B cells produce antibodies against the invader the next time it is seen
55% of blood plasma
45% of blood red blood cells
What are the functions of blood? transports nutrients, gasses, wastes around the body It regulates body temperature, Protect from invaders. Restricts the loss of fluids
mammals that lay eggs and the development of the fetus is external or occurs outside the mother monotremes
ex of montremes platypus and anteater
mammals that give birth to a partially developed fetus marsupials
es of marsupials kangaroo, wombat, koalas
internal fertilization placental
ex of placental humans
a skin sac that houses the testes; 3oF below body temperature scrotum
occurs and testosterone is produced in the testes Spermatogenesis
sperm stored; 9-10 weeks epididymis
One of hundreds of tiny tubes in which sperm are produced Seminiferous tubule
releases FSH anterior pituitary
travels through the blood to the ovary and stimulates the maturation of follicles eggs
stimulates the maturation of eggs within the follicles FSH
release estrogen follicles
when the follicle ruptures releasing the egg ovulation
During menses about 1/4 to 1/2 cup is lost
3 phase menstrual cycle menstruation (lasting 1 – 5 days), the follicular phase ( lasts about 14 days in a 28 day cycle), and the luteal phase lasts about 14 days
breast feeding benefits Physical and emotional benefits include creating a close mother-child bond maintain the release of progesterone and prolactin good diet is passed on and antibodies
views fetus in utero; uses endoscope Fetoscopy
12-18 week fetus ; Remove amniotic fluid ; 0.25-.5 chance of miscarrage Amniocentesis
High frequency sound waves Examine image on monitor ultasound
3 stages labor Cervix dilates…vaginal opening enlarges…amniotic sac bursts (water breaks) Child delivered through vagina Placenta (afterbirth) expelled controlled by oxytocin
when the male and female gametes (sperm and egg) unite fertilization
gametes are haploid (1 copy)
organisms are diploid 2 copy
form of asexual reproduction. when the growth and development of embryos occurs without fertilization Parthenogenesis
outside the organism external fertilization
within the organism internal fertilization
the egg must have been recently released proper timing
Pathway for gametes internal travel in tubes
Protection of gametes external: many eggs internal: placed inside female
Insects Some fish & reptiles Birds Monotreme mammals external egg laying
Some fish & reptiles Marsupials Placental mammals Internal: Give birth
more embryos survive; ecothermic Reptiles and birds
Caused by a spirochete Chancre, rash and organ damage Syphilis
Caused by a bacteria Painful urination, pus and sterility Gonorrhea
Caused by a virus Blisters, pain, headache, rash herpes
Caused by a virus Decrease in immunity AIDS
have both testes and ovaries; do not have separate sexes hermaphrodites
ex of hermaphrodites snails slugs, clown fish
Caterpillars metamorphose into butterflies
Complete metamorphosis Egg..larva..pupa..adult
Incomplete metamorphosis Egg…nymph…adult
ex of incomplete crickets, roaches, grasshoppers
ex of complete butterflies, moths, houseflies
An example of non-viable parthenogenesis bee hives
are genetically identical Identical twins
when 2 eggs are fertilized by two different sperm fraternal twins
Ovum stage weeks 1-2 Cleavage and implantation
Embryo stage weeks 3-8 Main organs appear Susceptible to outside stimuli
Fetal stage weeks 9-40 Size increases Systems become functional
- The amount of time it takes for an isotope to decay by one half Half life
The process in which organisms change over time evolution
What was the name of the islands that Darwin explored while traveling on the HMS Beagle? Galapagos Islands of Equador
What were Darwin’s 3 general findings about variations among species? Species vary globally Species vary locally Species vary over time
an example of species varying globally flightless birds: emus, rheas, and ostriches
species varying over time ex extinct glyptodont; armadillo
varying locally Galapagos tortoises
ability of an organism to survive and reproduce fitness
What is the idea of common descent? Species alive today share common ancestors
What is the evidence for shared ancestors that supports the idea of common descent? Comparative embryology, Comparative anatomy, Comparative biochemistry Fossil records, Comparative Genetics
heritable traits that enable organisms to survive and reproduce adaptions
What were the 3 main influences on Darwin as he was formulating his idea about “descent with modifications aboard the HMS Beagle? Geology, agriculture, and population growth
What were the geological influences? Works by the geologists James Hutton and Charles Lyell; provided the evidence for an older earth
What were the agricultural influences on Darwin’s thinking? crops and animals
Malthus populations grows faster than food supply
What was the title of Charles Darwin’s first book? On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Selection of organisms who survive because they have the best adaptations for their environment natural selection
A type of human influences natural selection of the color of an organism industrial melanism
The amount of time is takes for one-half of a radioactive substance to decay half life
What are the 5 different ways that fossils are formed? rocks, frozen in ice, captured in amber, preserved in peat bogs, and preserved in tar pits
What are scientists who study fossils called? paleontologists
Newcomers to an area that upset the ecology introduced species
driving force of evolution DNA mutations
Name at least four introduced species to the Galapagos Islands. fire ants, goats, pigs, cats, rats, dogs
Charles Darwin was a naturalist
Darwin’s Findings - organisms well designed for environment - common descent; ancestors - adaptions lead to fitness - fitness; adaptions
How old is the earth? 4.5 billion yrs
How do we know? Radioactive dating Rock layers Geologic features Fossils
First life Volcanic Hot Atmosphere
Created by: fikott1